Environment

The combination of physical, social, and cultural conditions that influence an individual's development and behavior.

The relative importance of heredity and environment in shaping human lives—nature versus nurture— has long been a topic of debate taken up by thinkers as diverse as English philosopher John Locke (1632– 1704), English naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin (1809–1882), and Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), and it forms part of current policy debates in areas such as crime and education. Historically, this controversy has pitted those who believe that human nature and intelligence are biologically determined (eugenicists) against those who contend that, given a positive and enriching environment, most individuals have the potential for high levels of human development (euthenists).

Scientists agree that such human characteristics as sex, height, skin and hair color, and, to a certain extent, temperament, are genetically determined at conception. Disagreement exists, however, over the extent to which other aspects of human development—including behavior, personality, and intelligence—are influenced by such environmental factors as nutrition, emotional climate of the home, and quality of stimulation and parental feedback. In addition to the immediate family, many experts consider the social class and culture in which a child is raised as important environmental factors in determining his or her development.

Social learning theorists refer to another layer of complexity in the relationship between environment and human behavior: the self-generated environment. This concept takes into account that a certain behavior or behaviors may produce environmental conditions that can affect future behavior. People who behave in an abrasive manner, for example, help create a hostile social environment, which in turn leads to further hostility on their part. Similarly, the behavior of friendly persons will tend to generate a supportive environment that reinforces and perpetuates their original behavior. Thus, a group of persons who find themselves in the same “potential environment” may experience different “actual environments” as a result of their contrasting behaviors.

Since the 1960s, environmental psychologists have studied the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment, including noise, pollution, and architectural design. Like ethologists, who study animal behavior in their natural habitat, environmental psychologists maintain a holistic view of human behavior that leads them to study it in its natural setting rather than in a laboratory, or at least to supplement laboratory experiments with field research. Environmental psychologists may study such topics as the ways in which the architectural design of a psychiatric hospital affects its patients; the effects of aircraft noise on children at a school near an airport; and overcrowding in a college dormitory.

Rather than a theoretical area of study, environmental psychology is basically an applied field geared toward solving specific problems. Like social learning theory, it is heavily concerned with the reciprocal relationship between behavior and environment, including the ways in which people cope with their physical surroundings by altering them. One exception to this orientation is a position known as determinism, which has influenced much research into the effects of architecture on behavior. The determinist approach emphasizes the adaptation of people to their surroundings, and considers behavior largely as a function of those surroundings, with little reciprocity involved.

KEY TERMS

Determinist—
One who studies the relationship between heredity and environment by emphasizing the behavioral adaptation of people to their surroundings.
Environmental psychologist—
One who maintains a holistic view of human behavior and studies it in its natural setting rather than in a laboratory, or at least supplements laboratory experiments with field research.
Ethologist—
One who studies animal behavior in the animal's natural habitat.
Eugenicist—
A person who believes that human nature and intelligence are biologically determined.
Euthenist—
A person who believes that human nature and intelligence are heavily influenced by a positive and enriching environment.
Nature vs. nurture—
The role of genetics vs. environmental factors, notably associated with human capabilities and behavior.
Self-generated environment—
A concept that a certain behavior or behaviors may produce environmental conditions that can affect future behavior.

Resources

BOOKS

Chance, Paul. Learning and Behavior, 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2014.

Low, Bobbi S. Why Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human Behavior, revised ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Tabery, James. Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture, Cambridge, MA: MITPress, 2014.

PERIODICALS

Crews, David, Ross Gillette, Isaac Miller-Crews, Andrea C. Gore, and Michael K. Skinner. “Nature, Nurture and Epigenetics,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 398 no. 1–2, (December 2014): 42–52.

Gadjev, Ilya. “Nature and Nurture: Lamarck's Legacy,” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114, no. 1(January 2015): 242–247.

Plomin, Robert, and Denise Daniels. “Why Are Children in the Same Family so Different From One Another?” International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, no. 3 (2011):563–582.

Plomin, Robert, Nicholas G. Shakeshaft, Andrew McMillan, and Maciej Trzaskowski. “Nature, Nurture, and Expertise,” Intelligence, 45 (July–August 2014): 46–59.

WEBSITES

Blech, Jo¨ rg, Der Spiegel, “How Hereditary Can Intelligence Be? Studies Show Nurture at Least as Important as Nature.” http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/how-hereditary-can-intelligence-be-studiesshow-nurture-at-least-as-important-as-nature-a-716614.html (accessed September 8, 2015).

Collins, Nick, The Telegraph “Nature vs. Nurture: Outcome Depends on Where You Live.” http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/9326819/Nature-vsnurture-outcome-depends-on-where-you-live.html (accessed September 8, 2015).

Feller, Stephen, UPI “Nature vs. Nurture: It's a Tie, Study Finds.” http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2015/05/19/Nature-vs-Nurture-Its-a-tie-study-finds/3741432044155/ (accessed September 8, 2015).

McLeod, Saul, SimplyPsychology. “Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology.” http://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html (accessed September 8, 2015).

ORGANIZATIONS

Epigenetics Society, hrlich@tulane.edu, http://epigeneticssocietyint.com/ .