Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure in which tiny electrodes are implanted in specific regions of the brain to eliminate symptoms of one of several different disorders. The primary diagnoses treated with DBS are movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions), essential tremor, and the psychiatric disorders Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and intractable clinical depression.
The electrodes’ impulses are controlled by a battery pack implanted under the skin of the chest, typically near the collarbone. The intensity of the electrical pulses is adjusted over time through the use of an external computer held near the pack. The batteries must be surgically replaced roughly every four years.
As of 2015, research was underway on the use of DBS with several other neuropsychiatric disorders, including post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), memory loss in dementia, traumatic brain injury, chronic pain syndrome, addictions, and anxiety disorder.
See also Electroencephalograph (EEG) ; Central nervous system ; Electrical stimulation of the brain ; Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) .
Bellenir, Karen. Mental Health Disorders Sourcebook: Basic Consumer Health Information About Healthy Brain Functioning and Mental Illnesses, Including Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Psychotic and Personality Disorders, Eating Disorders, Impulse Control Disorders. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2012.
Clark, David L., Nashaat N. Boutros, and Mario F. Mendez. The Brain and Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroanatomy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Coulter, Jeff, and W. W. Sharrock. Brain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive Science: Critical Assessments of the Philosophy of Psychology. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2007.
Lévèque, Marc. Psychosurgery: New Techniques for Brain Disorders. New York: Springer, 2014.
Lynch, Zack, and Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution: How Brain Science Is Changing Our World. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2009.
Bewernick, B. H., et al. “Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation Decreases Ratings of Depression and Anxiety in Treatment-Resistant Depression.” Biological Psychiatry 67, no. 2 (January 15, 2010): 110–16.
Roberts, Siobhan. “A Hands-On Approach to Studying the Brain, Even Einstein's.” New York Times, November 14, 2006.
Rohan, M. L., et al. “Rapid Mood-Elevating Effects of Low Field Magnetic Stimulation in Depression.” Biological Psychiatry 76, no. 3 (August 1, 2014): 186–93.
Gupta, Sanjay, and Andy Segal. “Treating Depression with Electrodes Inside the Brain.” CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2012/04/14/health/battery-powered-brain (accessed July 15, 2015).
Mayberg, Helen S. “Deep Brain Stimulation and Depression: A Decade of Progress.” Brain & Behavior Research Foundation Webinar. https://bbrfoundation.org/sites/bbrf.civicactions.net/files/file-downloads/BBRF%20Narsad%20Mayberg%20webinar%20jan14%20FINAL.PDF (accessed July 15, 2015).
National Geographic Society. “Beyond the Brain.” http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-andhuman-body/human-body/mind-brain.html (accessed July 15, 2015).
National Geographic Society. “Brain.” http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/brain-article.html (accessed July 15, 2015).
American Academy of Neurology, 201 Chicago Ave., Minneapolis, MN, 55415, (612) 928-6000, (800) 879-1960, Fax: (612) 454-2746, http://www.aan.com .