Glossary

aberration
In optical systems, such as lenses and curved mirrors, the deviation of light rays through lenses, causing images of an object to be blurred.
aperture
An opening that controls the amount of light that passes through a camera lens.
autofocus
A system by which a camera automatically focuses on an object in its field of view.
bitmap
A representation in which each part of an image corresponds to one or more bits of information on a computer screen.
calotype
Early photographic technique by which a large number of prints could be produced from a paper negative.
camera obscura
A darkened enclosure having an aperture usually provided with a lens through which light from external objects enters to form an image of the objects on the opposite surface.
charge-coupled device (CCD)
A semiconductor device that is used especially as an optical sensor in the formation of images (as in a camera).
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
A semiconductor technology used in computer microchips.
daguerreotype
An early photograph produced on a silver or a silver-covered copper plate.
diaphragm
A device that limits the aperture of a lens or optical system (as of a camera).
digital single lens reflex (DSLR)
A digital camera that combines the mechanisms and optics of a single-lens reflex camera and digital imaging sensor.
f-number
A number following the symbol f/ that expresses the ration of the focal length of a camera or telescope lens to the aperture and that determines the range of sharpness and the brightness of the image so that the smaller the number the brighter the image but the larger the number the greater the range of sharpness.
filter
A transparent material (as coloured glass) that absorbs light of certain colors and is used for modifying the light that reaches a sensitized photographic material.
fixer
A solution of sodium thiosulfate that is used as a photographic fixing agent to make the image of a photographic film or print permanent.
gigabyte
A measure of computer data storage capacity that is equivalent to 1 billion bytes.
high dynamic range (HDR)
A photographic and imaging technique used to reproduce an image with a significant range of luminosity.
infrared
Lying outside the visible spectrum at its red end used of heart radiation of wavelengths longer than those of visible light; relating to, producing, or employing infrared radiation.
light field camera
A plenoptic camera; a device that takes pictures that can be refocused after they have been taken.
liquid crystal display (LCD)
An electronic display that consists of a liquid with properties like a crystal that can reflect light.
megapixel
One million pixels.
photogrammetry
The science of making reliable measurements by the use of usually aerial photographs in surveying and mapmaking.
photojournalism
Journalism in which written copy is subordinate to pictorial usually photographic presentation of news stories.
photopolymer
A photosensitive plastic used to make printing plates.
pixel
Any of the small elements that together make up an image (as on a television or computer screen) or optical sensor (as for a camera).
shutter
Device through which the lens aperture of a camera is opened to admit light and thus expose the film (or the electronic image sensor of a digital camera).
single lens reflex (SLR)
A camera having a single lens that forms an image that is reflected to the viewfinder or recorded on film.
telephoto
Being a camera lens system designed to give a large image of a distant object relating to or being photography done with a telephoto lens.
tintype
A positive photograph produced by applying a collodion-nitrocellulose solution to a thin, black-enameled metal plate immediately before exposure.
viewfinder
A device on a camera for showing the area of the subject to be included in the picture.
(MLA 8th Edition)