Contents

Volume 1

Introduction ix

Timeline of the American Century xv

100 People Who Changed 20th-Century America 1

J. P. Morgan (1837–1913) 3

Thomas Edison (1847–1931) 9

Louis H. Sullivan (1856–1924) 14

Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) 20

John Dewey (1859–1952) 26

Juliette Gordon Low (1860–1927) 32

Henry Ford (1863–1947) 38

William Randolph Hearst (1863–1951) 44

Wilbur (1867–1912) and Orville (1871–1948) Wright 49

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868–1963) 54

L. L. Bean (1872–1967) 59

D. W. Griffith (1875 –1948) 65

Margaret Sanger (1879–1966) 73

Frances Perkins (1880 –1965) 78

Cecil B. DeMille (1881–1959) 84

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882–1945) 90

Eugene O’Neill (1888–1953) 96

T. S. Eliot (1888–1965) 102

Edwin Powell Hubble (1889–1953) 108

Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890–1954) 114

David Sarnoff (1891–1971) 119

Leo Burnett (1891–1971) 125

Reinhold Niebuhr (1892–1971) 130

Alfred C. Kinsey (1894–1956) 136

John Ford (1894–1973) 145

Martha Graham (1894–1991) 153

Babe Ruth (1895–1948) 158

Bill Wilson (1895–1971) 163

Walter Winchell (1897–1972) 170

George Gershwin (1898–1937) 176

Henry R. Luce (1898–1967) 181

Al Capone (1899–1947) 187

Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961) 192

Linus Pauling (1901–1994) 199

Walt Disney (1901–1966) 205

Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) 211

Ansel Adams (1902–1984) 219

Ray Kroc (1902–1984) 225

Benjamin McLane Spock (1903–1998) 231

Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967) 237

Estee Lauder (1906–2004) 243

Philo T. Farnsworth (1906–1971) 248

Rachel Carson (1907–1964) 255

William J. Levitt (1907–1994) 262

Edward R. Murrow (1908–1965) 270

Thurgood Marshall (1908–1993) 276

Milton Berle (1908–2002) 281

Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) 286

William Shockley (1910–1989) 292

Ronald Reagan (1911–2004) 297

Volume 2

Jackson Pollock (1912–1956) 303

Milton Friedman (1912–2006) 308

Vince Lombardi (1913–1970) 313

Jonas Salk (1914 –1995) 320

Jack LaLanne (1914–2011) 325

Paul Samuelson (1915–2009) 330

Ruth Handler (1916–2002) and the Barbie Doll (1959–) 335

Robert Lowell (1917–1977) 341

Sam Walton (1918–1962) 346

Billy Graham (1918–) 352

Leonard Bernstein (1918–1990) 357

Jackie Robinson (1919–1972) 364

Denton Cooley (1920–) 372

Isaac Asimov (1920–1992) 378

Richard Avedon (1923–2004) 384

Marlon Brando (1924–2004) 392

Johnny Carson (1925–2005) 397

Allen Ginsberg (1926–1997) 403

Hugh Hefner (1926–) 409

James Dewey Watson (1928–) 415

Noam Chomsky (1928–) 420

Andy Warhol (1928–1987) 426

Joan Ganz Cooney (1929–) 433

Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–1968) 438

Berry Gordy Jr. (1929–) 444

Warren E. Buffett (1930–) 449

Sandra Day O’Connor (1930–) 454

Roone Arledge (1931–2002) 459

Superman 464

Gloria Steinem (1934–) 470

Larry Kramer (1935–) 477

Elvis Presley (1935–1977) 482

Jim Brown (1936–) 489

Jack Nicklaus (1940–) 493

Bob Dylan (1941–) 498

Martha Stewart (1941–) 504

Muhammad Ali (1942–) 510

R. Crumb (1943–) 516

Billie Jean King (1943–) 522

Robert Pittman (1953–) 528

Oprah Winfrey (1954–) 534

Bill Gates (1955–) 540

Steve Jobs (1955–2011) 547

Grandmaster Flash (1958–) 554

Michael Jackson (1958–2009) 559

Michael Jordan (1963–) 564

Jimmy Wales (1966–) 570

Mark Zuckerberg (1984–) 582

Bart Simpson (1987–) 588

Selected Bibliography 595

Editorial Board 599

Contributors 601

Index 607

(MLA 8th Edition)