An ostomy is a surgical procedure to create an opening (stoma) from inside the body to outside the body. An ostomy can be a temporary procedure to rest an area of the body or support a bodily function, or it can be a permanent treatment.
A tracheostomy is a surgically created opening through the neck into the trachea or windpipe to enable a person to get air into the lungs. A hole is cut through the neck into the trachea below the Adam's apple, which is below the vocal cords. The vocal cords enable speaking, which means that a person with a tracheostomy may be unable to speak unless the tracheostomy cuff is deflated. If the individual is able to tolerate it, a speaking valve can be placed in a tracheostomy to allow for some speech capability. A tracheostomy may be temporary or permanent.
A tracheostomy tube is inserted into the opening to provide an airway into the lungs and to enable the removal of secretions from the airway. If the hole is temporary, the hole will be closed when the person can breathe normally and the tracheostomy is no longer needed. A nurse or speech therapist * will assist the person with strategies to communicate while the temporary tracheostomy is in place.
If the tracheostomy is permanent, the hole will remain open and the person will have to take precautions to prevent anything liquid or solid from getting into the airway. If food or secretions enter the lungs, pneumonia *
A tracheostomy is performed for several reasons:
A colostomy is a surgically created opening, called a stoma, in the abdominal wall. The healthy end of the large intestine is brought through the opening to the outside of the abdomen, usually on the left side, where the edges of the intestine are sutured in place. Feces (stool) move through the intestine and drain through the opening into a bag attached to the abdomen. A colostomy may be temporary or permanent.
A temporary colostomy may be done to allow a diseased or injured portion of the bowel to rest or heal. When the bowel has healed, the colostomy is reversed or closed. In a colostomy reversal, the end of the bowel is sutured back to the other end of the bowel inside the abdomen, and the stoma, or opening, on the outer abdominal wall is closed. Elimination of stool or feces returns to normal.
A permanent colostomy usually is done following the loss of part of the colon, most commonly the rectum. Individuals with a permanent colostomy must learn how to care for the colostomy, including how to empty feces in the colostomy bag, how to clean the bag, care of the skin around the ostomy site, and what dietary changes should be made. A nurse with specialized knowledge and experience with patients with ostomies, called an ostomy nurse, will provide this instruction and support.
A colostomy is performed for several reasons:
Individuals with a permanent ileostomy must learn how to care for the ileostomy, including how to empty feces in the ileostomy bag, how to clean the bag, care of the skin around the stoma, and what dietary changes should be made. A nurse with specialized knowledge and experience with patients with ostomies, called an ostomy nurse, will provide this instruction and support.
An ileostomy is performed for several reasons:
A urostomy is a surgically created opening (stoma) in the abdomen to redirect urine to a urostomy bag placed outside the abdomen on the abdominal wall. A urostomy is also called a urinary diversion. The bladder may be removed completely, or it may be bypassed. There are several different types of surgical procedures to create a urostomy.
There are several reasons why a urostomy may be done:
See also Bladder Cancer • Cancer: Overview • Colorectal Cancer • Crohn's Disease • Diverticulitis/Diverticulosis • Inflammatory Bowel Disease • Intestinal Infections • Intestinal Obstruction • Neurogenic Bladder • Trauma
Dabirian, Aazam, Farideh Yahmaei, Maryam Rassouli, and Mansoureh Zagheri Tafreshi. “Quality of Life in Ostomy Patients: A Qualitative Study.” Patient Preference and Adherence 5 (2011): 1–5.
Esposito, Lisa. “Life After Colectomy.” U.S. News & World Report. June 12, 2015. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/patient-advice/articles/2015/06/12/life-after-colectomy (accessed April 1, 2016).
Morris, Linda, and M. Sherif Afifi. Tracheostomies: The Complete Guide. New York: Springer, 2010.
White, Craig A. Living with a Stoma. London, UK: Sheldon Press, 2010.
American Cancer Society. “Ostomies.” http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/ostomies/ (accessed April 1, 2016).
American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. “Ostomy Expanded Version.” https://www.fascrs.org/patients/disease-condition/ostomy-expanded-version (accessed April 1, 2016).
MedlinePlus. “Ostomy.” U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ostomy.html (accessed October 26, 2015).
American Cancer Society. 250 Williams St. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. Toll-free: 800-227-2345. Website: http://www.cancer.org/ (accessed May 12, 2016).
American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. 85 W Algonquin Rd., Suite 550, Arlington Heights, IL 60005. Telephone: 847-290-9184. Website: https://www.fascrs.org (accessed May 12, 2016).
International Ostomy Association. PO Box 512, Northfield, MN, 55057. Toll-free: 800-826-0826. Website: http://www.ostomyinter-national.org (accessed May 12, 2016).
United Ostomy Association of America, Inc. PO Box 525, Kennebunk, ME 04043. Toll-free: 800-826-0826. Website: http://www.ostomy.org (accessed May 12, 2016).
Wound Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. 1120 Rte. 73, Ste. 200, Mount Laurel, NJ 08054. Toll-free: 888-224-9626. Website: http://www.wocn.org (accessed May 12, 2016).
* speech therapist is a health professional who assesses and treats voice, speech, swallowing, and language disorders.
* pneumonia (nu-MO-nyah) is inflammation and infection of the lungs.
* larynx (LAIR-inks) is the voice box (which contains the vocal cords) and is located between the base of the tongue and the top of the windpipe.
* paralysis (pah-RAHL-uh-sis) is the loss or impairment of the ability to move some part of the body.
* peritonitis (per-ih-to-NI-tis) is an inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.
* anus (A-nus) is the opening at the end of the digestive system, through which waste (stool or feces) leaves the body.
* vulva (VUL-vuh) is the external female genital area located on the outside of the body.
* scrotum (SKRO-tum) is the pouch on a male body that contains the testicles.
* Crohn's disease (KRONZ) is an often inherited, chronic inflammatory disease that typically affects the small and/or large intestine but can affect any part of the digestive system. The disease causes crater-like ulcers or sores in the inner surface of the bowel. Mild cases may be treated with medication; serious cases may be treated with surgery.
* ulcerative colitis (UL-sir-ah-tiv ko-LYE-tis) is a common form of inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation with sore spots or breaks in the inner lining of the large intestine (colon). Symptoms include cramping, bleeding from the rectum, and diarrhea.