Turmeric

Definition

Turmeric is a perennial plant belonging to the ginger family (Zingiberaceae); its biological names are Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma domestica. C. longa is native to India and Southeast Asia. It requires warm temperatures (between 68 and 86°F) and abundant rainfall to thrive. The turmeric plant is harvested for its rhizomes (underground stems) each year; some rhizomes are used to propagate new plants, whereas others are used either fresh or prepared by boiling and drying to make turmeric powder. As of 2018, about 80% of the turmeric used worldwide comes from India.

Other names for turmeric outside North America include halada, haldi, haridra, Indian saffron, nisha, pian jiang huang, rajani, safran bourbon, safran de batallita, safran des Indes, turmeric root, and yu jin.

Purpose

Turmeric has a wide range of historic and contemporary uses:




Turmeric supplement capsules and powder.





Turmeric supplement capsules and powder.
(Thanthima Lim/Shutterstock)

Description

Turmeric is available in the United States, Canada, and the European Union as a dried root or powdered spice for use in cooking and in various packaged forms as a dietary supplement. Supplements are available as capsules, chewables, tablets, liquids, tonics, tinctures, booster powders, softgels, teas, and extracts. In the United States, there is no standardization in the content of these supplements; for example, turmeric capsules are sold in 300 mg, 400 mg, 475 mg, 500 mg, 800 mg, and 1000 mg doses. In addition, turmeric is sometimes sold in combination with either bromelain, an enzyme derived from pineapple, or boswellia, a resin historically used to make frankincense. Although boswellia has some anti-inflammatory properties, bromelain has no known medical uses.

Government regulations

Turmeric may be regulated as an import, as an agricultural product, as a food additive, or as a dietary supplement.

Recommended dosage

No standard dosage has been established for turmeric dietary supplements because of the many forms in which the plant can be prepared for oral administration. In general, extracts and tinctures are stronger than tablets and capsules, which in turn are stronger than teas. Dosages also vary depending on whether the turmeric is being used in Ayurveda, TCM, naturopathy, or under the supervision of a mainstream healthcare provider. Some detailed recommendations for adults are provided in Health Canada and European Medicines Agency statements.

Some general recommendations for American consumers interested in turmeric as a dietary supplement are as follows:

Benefits

Although turmeric has been touted by practitioners of alternative medicine for years as an effective remedy for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, skin rashes, cancer, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, stomach ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, eczema, dental plaque, and others, no studies as of 2018 has shown conclusively that it is effective in treating any of these conditions. One reason for its relative ineffectiveness is its low bioavailability; curcumin, the active compound in turmeric, is unstable and readily broken down in the stomach; thus very little (about 1% at most) reaches the systemic circulation. Curcumin's other disadvantages for drug development include its potential for toxicity, its limited distribution in body tissue, and its insolubility in water.

KEY TERMS
Ayurveda—
The traditional system of natural medicine that originated in India around 3500 BCE. Its name is Sanskrit for “science of long life.”
Bioavailability—
The fraction of an administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation. In dietary supplements, bioavailability is usually defined as the proportion of the administered substance capable of being absorbed and available for use by the body.
Curcumin—
A bright yellow chemical belonging to the group of curcuminoids; it is responsible for the strong yellow color of turmeric powder.
Detoxification (detox) diets—
A category of shortterm diets intended to purge or release accumulated waste products and toxins from the body.
Naturopathy—
A system of disease treatment that emphasizes natural means of health care, such as water, natural foods, herbs, and other dietary adjustments; massage and manipulation; and electrotherapy, rather than conventional drugs and surgery.
Perennial plant—
A plant that lives for more than two successive years.
Rhizome—
The underground stem of certain plants that sends out roots and shoots. Rhizomes are sometimes called creeping rootstalks. The rhizome of the turmeric plant is used to produce new plants.
Tincture—
A preparation of a botanical made by soaking plant matter in a solution of alcohol and water.
Topical—
Referring to a medication or preparation intended to be applied to the outside of the body (skin, hair, nails, and eyes).

Precautions

Turmeric supplements are not recommended for children. Women who are pregnant or lactating can safely use turmeric as a spice in cooking, but they should not take turmeric supplements because of the risk of bleeding.

Other conditions and allergies

People with any of the following conditions or disorders should not take turmeric as a dietary supplement:

In addition, because turmeric affects blood clotting, people should discontinue using it at least two weeks before surgery or dental work.

Turmeric should be used only in its topical or oral forms; it should never be administered as an injection. In March 2017, a 30-year-old woman seeking treatment for eczema was given intravenous curcumin by a naturopath in San Diego; she died of a heart attack shortly after the infusion.

Side effects

Turmeric used in small quantities to color or season foods has not been associated with side effects. In skin creams and other topical formulations, turmeric may cause skin rashes and irritation in some people.

Turmeric taken as a dietary supplement has been reported to cause the following side effects:

QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR DOCTOR

Interactions

Turmeric interacts with a wide variety of prescription drugs, including:

Turmeric also interacts with other herbs and supplements, including those that affect blood clotting (angelica, capsicum, clove, dandelion, danshen, evening primrose, garlic, ginger, gingko, horse chestnut, ginseng, poplar, red clover, saw palmetto, and willow) and those that lower blood sugar levels (chromium, damiana, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, psyllium, and Siberian ginseng). It should not be used in combination with any of these.

See also Detoxification diets ; Dietary supplements ; Food additives .

Resources

BOOKS

Brandon, Britt. Turmeric for Health: 100 Amazing and Unexpected Uses for Turmeric. Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2016.

Cohen, Vicky, and Ruth Fox. Tahini and Turmeric: 101 Middle Eastern Classics Made Irresistibly Vegan. Boston, MA: Da Capo, 2018.

Robson-Garth, Michelle. The Everything Guide to Spices for Health: A Complete Guide to the Natural Health-Boosting Benefits of Everyday Spices. Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2016.

Taylor, Gerard, editor. Turmeric: Nutritional Properties, Uses, and Potential Benefits. New York: Nova Science, 2015.

PERIODICALS

Akuri, Marina Cristina, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Raíssa Meira Val, et al. “Reflections about Osteoarthritis and Curcuma longa.” Pharmacognosy Reviews 11, no. 21 (2017): 8–12.

Einbond, Linda Saxe, Fabiana Manservisi, Hsan-au Wu, et al. “A Transcriptomic Analysis of Turmeric: Curcumin Represses the Expression of Cholesterol Biosyn-thetic Genes and Synergizes with Simvastatin.” Pharmacological Research (February 3, 2018): S1043–S1066.

Liu, Xiaoqian, Gustavo C. Machado, Jillian P. Eyels, et al. “Dietary Supplements for Treating Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 52, no. 3 (February 2018): 167–75.

Murray-Stewart, Tracy, and Robert A. Casero. “Regulation of Polyamine Metabolism by Curcumin for Cancer Prevention and Therapy.” Medical Sciences 5, no. 4 (December 18, 2017): 38.

Park, Sung Jin, Coralia V. Garcia, Gye Hwa Shin, et al. “Improvement of Curcuminoid Bioaccessibility from Turmeric by a Nanostructured Lipid Carrier System.” Food Chemistry 251 (June 15, 2018): 51–57.

Patti, Angelo Maria, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Niki Katsiki, et al. “Effect of a Natural Supplement Containing Curcuma Longa, Guggul, and Chlorogenic Acid in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome.” Angiology 66, no. 9 (October 2015): 856–61.

Peddada, Krishi V., A'sha Brown, Vivek Verma, et al. “Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin in Major Retinal Pathologies.” International Ophthalmology (February 5, 2018): 1–10.

WEBSITES

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. “Get to Know Your Spice Rack.” EatRight.org . http://www.eatright.org/resource/food/planning-and-prep/cooking-tips-andtrends/get-to-know-your-spice-rack (accessed May 23, 2018).

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. “What's the Deal with Detox Diets?” EatRight.org . http://www.eatright.org/resource/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/whats-the-dealwith-detox-diets (accessed May 23, 2018).

Drugs.com . “Turmeric.” Drug Trust. https://www.drugs.com/mtm/turmeric.html (accessed May 23, 2018).

European Medicines Agency. “European Union Herbal Monograph on Curcuma longa L. (C. domestica Valeton), Rhizome.” EMA.Europa.eu. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal_-Herbal_monograph/2017/12/WC500240108.pdf (accessed May 23, 2018).

Food and Drug Administration (FDA). “Import Alert 66-41.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cms_ia/importalert_190.html (accessed May 23, 2018).

Health Canada. “Monograph: Turmeric—Oral.” Canada. gc.ca. http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/monoReq.do?id=216 (accessed May 23, 2018).

Mayo Clinic Staff. “Mayo Clinic Q and A: Alternative Treatments for Chronic Pain.” Mayo Clinic. https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-clinicq-and-a-alternative-treatments-for-chronic-pain/ (accessed May 23, 2018).

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). “Ayurvedic Medicine.” National Institutes of Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/ayurveda (accessed May 23, 2018).

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). “Naturopathy.” National Institutes of Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/naturopathy (accessed May 23, 2018).

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). “Turmeric.” National Institutes of Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/turmeric/ataglance.htm (accessed May 23, 2018).

Novella, Steven. “Naturopathic Death from IV Turmeric.” Science-Based Medicine. https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/naturopathic-death-from-iv-turmeric (accessed May 23, 2018).

Office of Dietary Supplements. “Background Information: Botanical Dietary Supplements.” National Institutes of Health. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/BotanicalBackground-HealthProfessional (accessed May 23, 2018).

Ratini, Melinda. “Turmeric (Curcumin).” WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/diet/supplement-guide-turmeric#1 (accessed May 23, 2018).

TOXNET. “Curcumin.” U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/name/curcumin (accessed May 23, 2018).

University of Maryland Medical Center. “Turmeric.” UMM.edu . https://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/turmeric (accessed May 23, 2018).

ORGANIZATIONS

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 120 S. Riverside Plaza, Ste. 2190, Chicago, IL, 60606-6995, (312) 899-0040, (800) 877-1600, amacmunn@eatright.org, http://www.eatright.org .

American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP), 818 18th St. NW, Ste. 250, Washington, DC, 20006, (202) 237-8150, (866) 538-2267, Fax: (202) 237-8152, https://www.naturopathic.org .

American Spice Trade Association (ASTA), 1101 17th Street, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC, 20036, (202) 331-2460, Fax: (202) 463-8998, http://www.astaspice.org/about-asta/contact-us , http://www.astaspice.org .

National Ayurvedic Medical Association (NAMA), 8605 Santa Monica Blvd., #46789, Los Angeles, CA, 90069-4109, (800) 669-8914, http://www.ayurvedanama.org/general/?type=CONTACT , http://www.ayurvedanama.org .

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), 9000 Rockville Pike, NIH Campus, Bldg. 31, Bethesda, MD, 20892, (888) 644-3615, https://nccih.nih.gov/tools/emailnccih , https://nccih.nih.gov .

Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

  This information is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a substitute for professional care.