Senior Nutrition

Definition

Nutrition describes the processes by which the foods people eat are broken down into chemical compounds and nutrients that can be absorbed and used by the body. Senior nutrition refers to the dietary requirements of adults aged 65 and older. As a result of biological and physiological changes in the aging body, older adults have different nutritional needs than younger adults. Nutrition for older adults focuses on consuming foods that help to maintain health, prevent disease, and support longevity.

Purpose

Good nutrition for older adults promotes health, helps to prevent disease, and supports optimum physical functioning throughout the senior years. A nutritious diet provides the nutrients needed for cell reproduction and repair and the proper functioning of the body's organ systems, including the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves), respiratory system (upper respiratory organs and lungs), cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels), and the musculoskeletal system (muscles and bones). Nutrition for older adults, just as for young and middle-aged adults, must be part of a healthy lifestyle that includes some form of regular physical activity.

The U.S. Census Bureau predicts that by 2050 the number of Americans aged 65 and older will be nearly 80 million, or about 1 in every 5 people. Most of this growth (about 2.8% annually) will take place before 2030 as the baby boom generation matures. However, although older adults enjoy longer lives and better physical functioning than ever before, they are also experiencing increased rates of obesity and preventable diseases. The so-called “diseases of aging” are not inevitable; they are attributed to lifestyle choices such as diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical exercise, along with the effects of life stressors and aging itself. Obesity, for example, increases the risk of conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, asthma and other respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 80% of older adults have one chronic condition and 50% have at least two. However, by following a healthy eating plan, exercising regularly, consuming only moderate amounts of alcohol, and not smoking tobacco, many of these diseases and conditions can be prevented.

Senior nutrition

Health risks of underweight older adults

Health risks of overweight or obese older adults

SOURCE: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Description

The physiological changes that occur during aging, such as an estimated 30% reduction in metabolic rate (basal metabolism, or the rate at which the body burns energy), 25% reduction in lean muscle mass, and overall reduced physical activity, older adults have special nutritional needs. Requirements for vitamins and minerals are decreased in older adults and energy requirements as well. A lower calorie diet is often recommended so that the reduced rate of metabolism and level of physical exercise does not result in increased body fat. At age 50 and older, men are advised to reduce their daily calorie intake by 600 calories and women to reduce their daily calorie intake by 300 calories. Actual reductions in calories, however, will vary with an individual's level of exercise and overall health status. For example, the calorie needs of a wheelchair-bound 80-year-old will differ from an 85-year-old who plays tennis regularly or swims every day.

Females

Males

51-70

70+

51-70

70+

Vitamins

Folate (folic acid)

400 μg

400 μg

400 μg

400 μg

Niacin

14 mg

14 mg

16 mg

16 mg

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

1.1 mg

1.1 mg

1.3 mg

1.3 mg

Thiamin (vitamin B1)

1.1 mg

1.1 mg

1.2 mg

1.2 mg

Vitamin A

700 μg

700 μg

900 μg

900 μg

Vitamin B6*

1.5 mg

1.5 mg

1.7 mg

1.7 mg

Vitamin B12

2.4 μg

2.4 μg

2.4 μg

2.4 μg

Vitamin C

75 mg

75 mg

90 mg

90 mg

Vitamin D

15 μg

20 μg

15 μg

20 μg

Vitamin E

15 mg

15 mg

15 mg

15 mg

Vitamin K*

90 μg

90 μg

120 μg

120 μg

Elements

Calcium

1,200 mg

1,200 mg

1,000 mg

1,200 mg

Fluoride*

3 mg

3 mg

4 mg

4 mg

Iron

8 mg

8 mg

8 mg

8 mg

Magnesium

320 mg

320 mg

420 mg

420 mg

Potassium*

4.7 g

4.7 g

4.7 g

4.7 g

Selenium*

55 μg

55 μg

55 μg

55 μg

Sodium*

1.3 g

1.2 g

1.3 g

1.2 g

Zinc

8 mg

8 mg

11 mg

11 mg

Macronutrients

Carbohydrates

130 g

130 g

130 g

130 g

Fat*

Protein

46 g

46 g

56 g

56 g

Water*

2.7 L

2.7 L

3.7 L

3.7 L

*Indicates Adequate Intake (no RDA has been established).

fUp to 30% of seniors have trouble absorbing B12 naturally found in foods. People older than 50 years are advised to consume foods fortified with B12 or take a B12 supplement to meet their RDA.

*There is no RDA for fat, but the daily recommended range is between 20%–35% of total calories.

μg = microgram (mcg)

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library, Food and Nutrition Information Center.

Chronic diseases

The presence of one or more chronic diseases may also alter the nutritional needs of an older individual. In particular, the following diseases may benefit from changes in an individual's diet and eating habits.

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES. The heart muscles become less efficient over time and, as the heart works harder to pump blood, the blood vessels lose elasticity. If hardened fatty deposits called plaque form on the inner walls of the arteries, the arteries become narrowed and stiff (atherosclerosis), impeding blood flow and increasing risk of blood clot formation. Plaque is made up of fats, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris (dead cells and tissues) carried by the blood. If plaque builds up, the inner space of blood vessels will narrow, which increases blood pressure against the vessel walls (hypertension) and may cause other vascular problems, such as congestive heart failure or heart attack, stroke, and dementia (vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease). Foods that are high in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium (salt), and sugar can increase risk factors for these health problems. A diet that reduces unhealthy fats and oils, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, and includes whole foods rather than refined or processed foods, may help to reduce risk of atherosclerosis and vascular problems. A healthy whole foods diet is most effective when combined with physical exercise.

OSTEOPOROSIS. As people age, they begin to lose bone density and strength. As density is lost, bones may shrink, and older adults may become shorter. Loss of bone density (osteopenia) increases the risk of developing osteoporosis, a condition described as “brittle bones.” Porous, fragile bones make older adults more vulnerable to bone fractures, which can happen spontaneously and not only with falls. Bone density in women accelerates after hormone changes in menopause, placing women at higher risk for osteoporosis than men. Men with osteoporosis are usually diagnosed after age 75, and often have a low BMI and have lost up to 5% of their body weight within a few months. Physical inactivity and smoking also contribute to osteoporosis. Consuming a diet rich in calcium and regularly engaging in weight-bearing exercise are essential to bone health.




Nurse holding a cooking and nutritional education workshop for obese and diabetic persons.





Nurse holding a cooking and nutritional education workshop for obese and diabetic persons.
(BURGER/PHANIE/Science Source)

SARCOPENIA. Muscle mass declines during aging, starting about age 30 and continuing at about 3% or more per decade. This incremental loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is linked to lack of exercise and protein deficiency. Failure to exercise muscles may result in a loss of 30% to;40% of muscle strength by the time a person reaches 65 to 70 years, reducing the ability to lift and carry things and to remain stable while standing and walking. It increases risk for frailty in those of advanced age and also increases susceptibility to falling. Muscle loss can be slowed through daily intake of dietary protein, such as lean meat, fish, chicken, or soy products, accompanied by muscle-strengthening exercises.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is another digestive disease that develops commonly in older adults. GERD develops as a result of abnormal relaxation of the muscle at the bottom of the esophagus (lower esophageal sphincter) that allows the backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus. It can be caused by hiatal hernia, obesity, and delayed emptying of the stomach. After eating, the stomach contents, including stomach acid and partially digested food, may flow back into the esophagus that connects the mouth and stomach (reflux). The acid reflux can irritate the lining of the esophagus, producing symptoms such as burning and pain. Although acid-reducing medications are used to treat GERD, the diet is also important because foods affect the amount of acid produced. A diet high in nutrients but low in fat and sugar may help reduce reflux symptoms, especially vegetables such as broccoli, green beans, asparagus, cauliflower, and dark leafy greens, including kale, collards, spinach and chard.

Body weight

Maintaining a healthy weight may reduce risk of developing many chronic diseases, help improve flexibility and mobility, and aid in mental alertness. The risks of being overweight or obese include type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus), high blood pressure (hypertension), high blood cholesterol, coronary heart disease or peripheral artery disease, stroke, some types of cancer, and gallbladder disease (cholecystitis). Obesity is defined as an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more above normal body weight. Adult bodyweight is often measured by body mass index (BMI), which is calculated using an individual's height and weight. The criteria for BMI established by the World Health Organization (WHO) defines underweight as BMI<18.5 kg/m2, normal weight as BMI=18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, overweight as BMI=25 to 29.9 kg/m2, and obese as BMI=30.0 kg/m2. However, WHO also suggests that slightly overweight (BMI between 25.0 and 27.0 kg/m2) may have some health-related advantage for older adults.

Among older adults, being underweight may increase risk of poor memory, decreased immunity, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength (sarcopenia), lowered body temperature (hypothermia), and constipation. Although underweight is diagnosed less often than overweight, it can be just as difficult to correct in older adults who have lost interest in food, who live alone and may have difficulty shopping for groceries or preparing food, and those with certain illnesses or taking medications that reduce the appetite.

Adequate nutrition for older adults

The eighth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was introduced by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services in December 2015. This 2015-2020 version of the guidelines was developed to focus mainly on the increased rate of chronic diseases, many related to poor diet and physical inactivity, and to provide recommendations that busy people can easily put into practice in their daily lives. Some of the important recommendations of the 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for adults of any age are:

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans stresses overall health and prevention, rather than treating diet-related chronic disease. Healthy eating patterns are described as including a variety of vegetables from all the subgroups (dark green leafy, red and orange, legumes, and starchy); whole fruits; grains, at least half being whole grains; fat-free or low-fat dairy (milk, yogurt, cheeses) and soy beverages; and a variety of proteins, including seafood, lean meats, poultry; eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and soy products; and oils, such as olive oil and canola oil, but not saturated fats and trans fats.

The Dietary Guidelines are represented by MyPlate, a visual characterization of general daily eating recommendations. MyPlate is the graphic of a plate divided into four sections. On one-half are fruits and vegetables, and on the other half are grains and proteins. To the side is a small circle representing dairy products. MyPlate recommendations include

Nutrition and calorie requirements

Older adults are advised to consume fewer calories than young and middle-aged adults. The number of calories consumed each day depends upon an individual's level of physical activity. According to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans described above, a woman aged 51 or older should consume

A man aged 51 or older should consume

Calorie recommendations are estimates only and vary based on a person's activity level and metabolism rate.

Fluid intake

Adequate hydration is necessary for adults of all ages to help support cellular activity throughout the body and maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. Research in nursing homes has shown that older adults are nearly all dehydrated and require constant urging to drink fluids; although mobile adults may be less subject to dehydration, maintaining fluid balance is still essential. Water must be the main source of fluids. Limiting sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices, even those that are 100% fruit, is especially important. Sugar-sweetened beverages and the high-sugar content of fruit beverages can contribute to weight gain and dental cavities if consumed too often. Consuming alcoholic beverages in moderation may not affect health adversely but if not limited may contribute to dehydration. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend no more than one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men. A single alcoholic drink is defined as 12 oz. of beer, 5 oz. of wine, or 1.5 oz. of liquor.

Men are advised to consume about 13 cups (3 L) of fluids each day, preferably water, and women are advised to take in about 9 cups (2.2 L) daily. Most people will get adequate hydration from normal thirst and drinking behavior. Fluid in foods, such as water contained in fruits and vegetables, contributes to overall fluid requirements; food usually provides up to 20% of daily fluid needs. However, drinking fluids while eating should be limited so as to avoid diluting digestive fluids.

Nutrients for physical strength

Adults who are physically active and who participate in strength training or pursue athletic activities will have different nutritional needs than more typical adults of the same age who have normal daily activity levels. For example, more active adults require more fluids while exercising. In general, athletes and those who are more physically active also require more carbohydrates and calories in their diets than more sedentary individuals.

CARBOHYDRATES. Carbohydrates provide energy, but the choice of carbohydrate-rich foods is important. Nutritionists advise that carbohydrates should come mainly from whole grains, such as oatmeal, brown rice, multigrain pasta or bread as well as beans and lentils, yellow squash, and sweet potatoes or yams. Carbohydrate-rich fruits include grapefruit, apples, berries, and bananas.

CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D. The mineral calcium helps to strengthen bones and prevent bone loss, and vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for calcium for women aged 51 and older is 1,200 mg per day. The daily RDA for men between the ages of 51 and 70 is 1,000 mg; the RDA increases to 1,200 mg for men aged 71 and older. Sources of calcium include low- and nonfat yogurt, cottage and ricotta cheeses, milk, calcium-enriched tofu, broccoli, kale, bok choy, calcium-fortified orange juice, legumes, and fortified bread and cereal products. Soy or rice milk fortified with calcium and vitamin D may be substituted for cow's milk.

VITAMIN B12. Older adults are often deficient in vitamin B12, which helps produce red blood cells and supports functioning of the brain and nervous system. Vitamin B12 can be obtained in the diet by consuming liver, kidney, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and in B12-fortified foods. The RDA for vitamin B12 is 2.4 mcg for women and men.

Dietary supplements

Although whole foods are the preferred source of nutrition, older adults may sometimes need to take dietary supplements, a decision that should be discussed with their physicians. Research results suggest that the use of a single daily multivitamin-mineral supplement may be sufficient to address any nutritional gaps in the diet; however, actual nutrient deficiencies may or may not exist in the individual, and blood tests may be needed to detect or confirm vitamin or other deficiencies before supplementation is recommended.

The essential omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are known for their antiinflammatory activity in the body as well as support for the cardiovascular and immune systems. The American Heart Association advises that people with coronary heart disease consume approximately one gram of these fatty acids daily, preferably from food sources. Good sources include fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, and trout. Fish oil and flax oil supplements are available, but individuals are advised to consult with their doctors before taking supplements.

Physical activity

Physical activity benefits the health of people of all ages. It can reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases and may relieve symptoms of depression. For older adults, physical activities may help them to live independently and enhance overall quality of life. Research shows that even among the oldest adults, mobility and functioning can be improved through modest daily physical activity like walking, stretching, or chair yoga.

The 2015 Dietary Guidelines advise people to be physically active and to choose exercises they enjoy. Regular exercise is generally accepted as an excellent way to improve health, reduce the risk of disease, and manage weight. The guidelines reference exercise recommendations from the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, which is issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The guidelines recommend that adults aged 18 to 64 years participate in at least 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate aerobic physical activity or 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity, or a combination of both. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such as brisk walking, dancing, swimming, or bicycling on a level terrain, increases the heart rate and breathing to some extent. Vigorous-intensity aerobic activity greatly increases the heart rate and breathing. These activities include jogging, singles tennis, swimming continuous laps, or bicycling uphill. People aged 65 years or older should follow the adult guidelines. When older adults cannot meet the adult guidelines, they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions will allow.

The guidelines also recommend that individuals engage in strength exercises at least two days each week. Activities such as weight and resistance training increase skeletal muscle strength, power, endurance, and mass. Strengthening activities include running, jumping rope, or lifting weights. Exercises to maintain or improve balance will help prevent falling and injury to bones.

Challenges for older adults

Although nutritious food choices and a balanced diet are essential for older adults to maintain a healthy lifestyle and to promote longevity, various obstacles may prevent or limit older adults from participating in physical activities and benefiting from good eating habits. Such obstacles may include living alone and feeling lonely and depressed, limited finances, lack of cooking skills or desire to cook, inadequate nutritional knowledge, oral or dental problems and difficulty chewing, loss of appetite, and cognitive problems.

TASTE AND SMELL. The senses of smell and taste decrease with age, which may result in a decreased appetite. However, although aging does decrease taste bud sensations, studies have shown that smoking, chronic disease, or environmental exposures may contribute to taste loss. Loss of taste seems to occur after age 60. Sense of smell may begin to diminish after age 70, which may be linked to decreased nerve endings in the nose. Aging may also reduce the amount of saliva produced, which causes the mouth to be dry and can make it harder to swallow.

Government and community supplemental nutrition programs

In the United States, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), otherwise known as the food stamp program, is a national food assistance program administered at state and local levels. It is available to families and individuals who qualify and is one option qualifying seniors can use to help purchase food. Information about this and other nutrition programs of the USDA Food and Nutrition Service is available at https://www.fns.usda.gov . Some communities also offer grocery-shopping assistance to help homebound seniors purchase food items, though sometimes a service fee may be required, in addition to the cost of the groceries.

The Elderly Nutrition Program, authorized under Title III of the U.S. Older Americans Act, provides grants to state community agencies on aging and federally recognized tribal governments to support congregate and home-delivered meals to people aged 60 years and older. Additional funds for the program are provided by state and local agencies. The program is designed to address problems of dietary inadequacy and social isolation among older people, especially low-income minorities and rural populations. Although these programs target low-income individuals, they are available at no cost to all older adults (aged 65 and older), regardless of income.

The congregate meal program allows older adults to gather at a site, such as a senior center, school, or restaurant, for a meal. This program ensures that for five to seven days each week, seniors eat at least one nutritious meal that provides at least one-third of the recommended dietary allowances for an older person. Often meals are available that meet the requirements for special diets, such as low-sodium meals for high blood pressure or soft foods for those who have trouble chewing. In addition, other services, such as health and nutrition screenings, education, counseling, fitness programs, and recreational activities, may be offered.

Meals on Wheels Association of America (MOWAA) is an organization whose membership is composed mostly of senior nutrition programs in the United States. MOWAA member programs throughout the country provide nutritious meals and other nutrition services to men and women who are elderly, homebound, disabled, frail, or at risk. These services significantly improve the quality of life and health of the individuals they serve and help people live in their homes and maintain their independence. As a national organization, MOWAA focuses on providing quality meals and nutrition services to as many people as possible “so no senior goes hungry.”

Volunteers who deliver meals to older people who are homebound through MOWAA are encouraged to spend time with their clients. The volunteers also check on the welfare of the homebound so that they can report any health or other problems that they note during their visits.

The Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) awards grants to states, U.S. territories, and federally recognized tribal governments to provide low-income seniors with coupons that can be exchanged for eligible foods at farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community-supported agriculture (CSA) programs. The program helps seniors obtain fresh, nutritious, and locally grown fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Adults who are at least aged 60 years and have household incomes of no more than 185% of the federal poverty guidelines are eligible.

Precautions

Adults of all ages are advised to consult with their doctors before beginning a diet, taking supplements, or starting an exercise program. They should also discuss potential interactions whenever a new medication is prescribed. Certain foods or beverages can diminish or increase the effects of some medications.

Thirst is sometimes diminished in older adults, increasing risk for becoming dehydrated. Dehydration may result in fatigue, disorientation, confusion, and changes in blood pressure and may also lead to kidney and cardiac abnormalities. In addition to water, other beverage options include 100% fruit and vegetable juices, milk, sparkling waters, and soy and rice milks. Beverages with caffeine, such as coffee or tea, should be limited. Caffeine increases urination, which can contribute to dehydration and could be an issue for older people with mobility problems. Caffeine can also disrupt sleep patterns, especially if consumed late in the day.

Interactions

Some medications interact with food or the nutrients in food, so it is crucial to be aware of potential interactions. Both prescription and over-the-counter medications could cause interactions, so older adults should inform their physicians about any substances they are taking, including vitamins and supplements. Certain foods and beverages, including alcohol, dairy products, and vegetables containing vitamin K, may also interact with medications.

Complications

Events that occur late in life may have an effect on health and nutrition. Changes, like retirement or the loss of a spouse or partner, affect day-to-day habits and require adjustment. A sense of isolation may be an obstacle to healthy nutrition. A newly widowed spouse may find it difficult to be alone at mealtimes. Older adults may not feel like preparing or eating meals. A study of newly widowed people found that nearly 85% reported a weight change during the two years following the death of a spouse, with an average weight loss of 7.6 lb. (3.45 kg). Widowed women reported that cooking was a “chore,” especially since there was no one to appreciate their efforts. Widowed men may not know how to cook and may become dependent on snacks and fast foods, which may not provide adequate nutrition.

Microwave ovens can provide an easy means for cooking nutritious frozen or prepared foods. Use of a slow cooker or a steamer can also help simplify the food preparation process. Free or low-cost cooking classes are offered at locations including adult schools, and hospitals may offer sessions on preparing healthy meals. Even if an older adult has years of experience in the kitchen, a class provides the opportunities to learn something new and socialize with other people.

KEY TERMS
Alzheimers disease—
A progressive, incurable form of dementia that destroys brain cells, gradually causing changes in personality and behavior and loss of cognitive abilities, including memory.
Atherosclerosis—
A process in which the walls of the coronary arteries thicken due to the accumulation of plaque in the blood vessels. Atherosclerosis results in coronary artery disease, a condition in which narrowed arteries impede blood flow.
Cholesterol—
A waxy substance made by the liver as a lubricant for blood vessels. High circulating levels of cholesterol from foods added to that manufactured by the body may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Constipation—
Abnormally delayed or infrequent passage of feces. It may be either functional (related to failure to move the bowels) or organic (caused by another disease or disorder).
Diabetes mellitus—
A condition in which the body either does not make or cannot respond to the hormone insulin. As a result, the body cannot utilize glucose (sugar) properly.
Diverticulitis—
Inflammation of pouch-like pockets (diverticula) in the walls of the large intestine.
Diverticulosis—
The presence of pouch-like pockets (diverticula) in the walls of the large intestine.
Hiatal hernia—
Protrusion of a part of the stomach through a small opening (hiatus) in the muscle that separates the chest and abdomen (diaphragm).
Hypertension—
High blood pressure caused by increased pressure of blood exerted against artery walls as the heart pumps blood. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, raises the risk for heart attack, stroke, and kidney and eye damage.
Osteoporosis—
Thinning of the bones or reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. An individual with osteoporosis is predisposed to fractures, which heal slowly and often poorly.
Sarcopenia—
A degenerative loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging.
QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR DOCTOR
Health-related issues

Health conditions other than chronic disease may interfere with obtaining sufficient nutrition. Loss of dexterity or arthritic joints, for example, may make it difficult to use a knife or even to feed oneself. Missing teeth or poorly adjusted dentures may cause chewing and swallowing problems. Adaptive devices are available to help with dexterity issues. A visit to the dentist may resolve the issue of poorly fitting dentures. Problems with chewing can be addressed through eating softer foods, such as canned fruits, creamed or mashed vegetables, ground meat, foods made with milk (such as pudding or yogurt), and fruit and vegetable juices.

Family members and friends may need to help older adults meet their nutritional needs by taking them shopping or helping them prepare meals. For older adults who require supervision or 24-hour care that cannot be provided by family members, research on assisted-living facilities or nursing homes may include reviewing copies of menus to ensure that adequate nutrition is provided to residents. Some facilities invite prospective residents and their relatives to eat a meal in the dining room so they can assess the food and get to know the residents.

See also Cancer ; Coronary heart disease ; Dietary counseling ; Dietary supplements ; High-fiber diet ; Hypertension ; Vitamins .

Resources

BOOKS

Bales, Connie Watkins, Julie L. Locher, Edward Saltzman, eds. Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Aging. New York: Springer, 2015.

Longo, Valter.The Longevity Diet: Discover the New Science Behind Stem Cell Activation and Regeneration to Slow Aging, Fight Disease, and Optimize Weight. New York: Penguin Random House, 2018.

Watson, Ronald Ross. Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging. St. Louis: Elsevier, Academic Press, 2017.

PERIODICALS

Bernstein, M. “Nutritional Needs of the Older Adult.” Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 28 (Nov. 2017): 747–66.

Chan R., J. Leung, J. Woo. “Dietary Patterns and Risk of Frailty in Chinese Community-Dwelling Older People in Hong Kong: A Prospective Cohort Study.” Nutrients 7 (Aug. 2015): 7070–84.

Robinson, S.M. “Improving nutrition to support healthy ageing: what are the opportunities for intervention?” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2017 27 (Nov 2017): 1–8.

WEBSITES

Mayo Clinic staff. “Aging: What to Expect.” MayoClinic.com . http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/aging/HA00040 (accessed March 22, 2018).

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NLBI). “What Is Atherosclerosis?” National Institutes of Health. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis (accessed March 22, 2018).

NIHSeniorHealth.gov . “Choosing Healthy Meals As You Get Older.” U.S. National Institute on Aging, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/choosing-healthy-meals-youget-older (accessed March 22, 2018).

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “Healthy Aging” http://www.cdc.gov/aging/index.html (accessed March 22, 2018).

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Post-Core: Fats—Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fat.” National Diabetes Prevention Program. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention/pdf/PostHandout_Session2.pdf (accessed March 22, 2018).

U.S. Department of Agriculture. ChooseMyPlate.gov . http://www.choosemyplate.gov (accessed March 22, 2018).

U.S. Department of Agriculture. “Nutrition for Older Adults.” http://snap.nal.usda.gov/professionaldevelopment-tools/hot-topics-z/nutrition-olderadults (accessed March 22, 2018).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th ed. December 2015. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/ (accessed May 1, 2018).

World Health Organization. “Obesity. http://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/ (accessed March 22, 2018).

ORGANIZATIONS

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 120 South Riverside Plz., Ste. 2000, Chicago, IL, 60606-6995, (312) 899-0040, (800) 877-1600, amacmunn@eatright.org, http://www.eatright.org .

Administration on Aging, One Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC, 20001, (202) 619-0724, Fax: (202) 357-3555, (800) 677-1116, aoainfo@aoa.hhs.gov, http://www.aoa.gov .

Food and Nutrition Information Center, National Agricultural Library, 10301 Baltimore Ave., Rm. 105, Beltsville, MD, 20705, (301) 504-5414, Fax: (301) 504-6409, fnic@ars.usda.gov, http://fnic.nal.usda.gov .

Meals on Wheels Association of America, 203 S Union St., Alexandria, VA, 22314, (703) 548-5558, Fax: (703) 548-8024, http://www.mowaa.org .

National Institute on Aging, 31 Center Dr., Bldg. 31, Rm. 5C27, Bethesda, MD, 20892, (800) 222-2225, TTY: (800) 222-4225, niaic@nia.nih.gov, http://www.nia.nih.gov .

Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP), USDA Food & Nutrition Service, 3101 Park Center Drive, Alexandria, MVA, 22302, http://www.fns.usda.gov .

L. Lee Culvert

  This information is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a substitute for professional care.