Index - Part II

KERENSKY, ALEKSANDR FEDOROVICH (1881-1970), Russian revolutionary and politician 8 516-517

KERKORIAN, KIRK (Kerkor Kerkorian; born 1917), American financier 27 201-203

KERN, JEROME DAVID (1885-1945), American composer 8 517-518

KEROUAC, JEAN-LOUIS LEBRIS DE (Jack; 1922-1969), American writer of autobiographical fiction 8 518-519

KERR, CLARK (1911-2003), American economist, labor/management expert, and university president 8 519-521

KERREY, J. ROBERT (born 1943), Democratic senator from Nebraska and 1992 presidential candidate 8 521-522

KERRY, JOHN (born 1943), Democratic senator from Massachusetts and 2004 presidential candidate 25 238-240

KESEY, KEN ELTON (1935-2001), American author 27 203-205

KESSELRING, ALBERT (1885-1960), German field marshal 8 522-523

KESSLER, DAVID A. (born 1951), commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration 8 523-524

KETTERING, CHARLES F. (1876-1958), American engineer, industrial pioneer, and apostle of progress 8 524-525

KEUMALAHAYATI (c. 1570-c. 1630), Indonesian military officer 38 177-179

KEVORKIAN, JACK (1928-2011), American pathologist who practiced assisted suicide 19 180-182

KEY, FRANCIS SCOTT (1779-1843), American poet and attorney 8 525-527

KEY, VLADIMIR ORLANDO, JR. (1908-1963), American political scientist 8 527-528

KEYNES, JOHN MAYNARD (1st Baron Keynes of Tilton; 1883-1946), English economist 8 528-530

KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti)
          Ames, Aldrich 38 5-7

KHACHATURIAN, ARAM ILICH (or Khachaturov; 1903-1978), Russian composer 8 530-531

KHALID BIN ABDUL AZIZ AL-SAUD (1912-1982), Saudi king and prime minister 23 194-196

KHALIL, SAYYID ABDULLAH (1892-1970), Sudanese general, prime minister 1956-1958 8 531-532

KHAMA, SIR SERETSE M. (1921-1980), Botswana political leader 8 532-533

KHAMENEI, AYATOLLAH SAYYID ALI (born 1939), supreme spiritual and political leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran 8 533-535

Khammurapikh
    see Hammurabi

KHAN, ABDUR RAHMAN (1844-1901), Emir of Afghanistan 1880-1901 34 200-202

KHAN, ALI AKBAR (1922-2009), Indian musician 24 203-206

KHAN, A.Q. (Abdul Quadeer Khan; born 1936), Pakistani metallurgical engineer 27 205-208

KHAN, DOST MOHAMMAD (1793-1863), Afghan ruler (1826-1839; 1845-1863) and founder of Barakzai dynasty 35 219-221

KHAN, FAZLUR RAHMAN (1929-1982), Bangladeshi-born American architect 38 179-180

KHAN, NOOR INAYAT (1914-1944), British patriot 34 202-204

KHANZHONKOV, ALEKSANDR (1877-1945), Russian movie director 37 190-192

Khmelnitskii, Bogdan
    see Chmielnicki, Bogdan

KHOMEINI, AYATOLLAH RUHOLLAH MUSAVI (1902-1989), founder and supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran 8 535-537

KHORANA, HAR GOBIND (1922-2011), Indian organic chemist 8 537-538

KHOSROW I (died 579), Sassanid king of Persia 531-576 8 538-539

Khosru
    see Khosrow I

KHRUSHCHEV, NIKITA SERGEEVICH (1894-1971), Soviet political leader 8 539-540

KHUFU (ruled 2590-2568 BCE), Egyptian king 8 540-541

Khurram
    see Shah Jahan

Khusrau
    see Khosrow I

KHUTULUN (1260-1306), Mongolian princess 37 192-194

KHWARIZMI, MUHAMMAD IBN MUSA AL- (died c. 850), Arab mathematician, astronomer, and geographer 8 541

KIBAKI, MWAI (born 1931), Kenyan presidnet 25 240-242

Kibo-no Mabi
    see Makibi, Kibi-no

KIDD, WILLIAM (c. 1645-1701), Scottish pirate 21 242-244

KIDDER, ALFRED VINCENT (1885-1963), American archeologist 8 541-542

KIDMAN, SIDNEY (1857-1935), “The Cattle King” of Australia 8 542-544

KIEFER, ADOLPH (1918-2017), American swimmer 38 180-182

KIEFER, ANSELM (born 1945), German artist 8 544-546

KIENHOLZ, EDWARD (1927-1994), American Pop artist 8 546-547

KIERKEGAARD, SØREN AABYE (1813-1855), Danish philosopher 8 547-549

KIESLOWSKI, KRZYSZTOF (1941-1946), Polish film director 25 242-244

KILBY, JACK ST. CLAIR (1923-2005), American electrical engineer and inventor 25 244-246

KILPATRICK, WILLIAM H. (1871-1965), American educator, college president, and philosopher of education 9 1-3

KIM DAE-JUNG (1925-2009), worked for the restoration of democracy and human rights in South Korea after 1971 9 3-4

KIM IL-SUNG (1912-1994), North Korean political leader 9 4-6

KIM JONG IL (1941-2011), leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 9 6-7

KIM OK-KYUN (1851-1894), Korean politician 9 7-8

KIM PUSIK (1075-1151), Korean statesman, historian, and general 9 8-9

Kim Song-ju
    see Kim Il-sung

KIM YOUNG SAM (born 1927), South Korean statesman 9 9-10

KINCAID, JAMAICA (Elaine Potter Richardson; born 1949), African American author 23 196-199

KINDI, ABU-YUSUF YAQUB IBN-ISHAQ AL- (died 873), Arab philosopher 9 10-11

KING, B. B. (born Riley B. King; born 1925), African American blues musician, singer, and songwriter 9 11-14

KING, BILLIE JEAN (born 1943), international tennis star 9 14-15

KING, CAROLE (born 1942), American singer and songwriter 32 180-182

KING, CLARENCE (1842-1901), American geologist and mining engineer 9 15-16

KING, CORETTA SCOTT (1927-2005), American advocate of civil rights, nonviolence, international peace, full employment, and equal rights for women 9 16-17

KING, ERNEST JOSEPH (1878-1956), American admiral 9 17-18

KING, FREDERIC TRUBY (1858-1938), New Zealand doctor and founder of the Plunket Society 9 18-19

KING, LARRY (born 1933), American journalist 34 204-206

KING, LOUISA BOYD YEOMANS (1863-1948), American horticulturist 37 194-196

KING, MARTIN LUTHER, JR. (1929-1968), African American minister and civil rights leader 9 20-22

KING, MARY-CLAIRE (born 1946), American geneticist 19 182-183

KING, RUFUS (1755-1827), American statesman and diplomat 9 22-23

KING, STEPHEN (a.k.a. Richard Bachman and John Swithen; born 1947), American horror novelist 9 23-25

KING, WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE (1874-1950), Canadian statesman 9 25-26

King and I, The (musical)
          Brynner, Yul 38 42-44

King Curtis
    see Ousley, Curtis

King of Bourges
    see Charles VII (king of France)

KINGMAN, DONG (Dong Moy She Kingman; 1911-2000), Chinese American artist 27 208-209

Kings Mountain, Battle of (1780)
          Ferguson, Patrick 38 95-97

KINGSFORD SMITH, SIR CHARLES (“Smithy”; 1897-1935), Australian longdistance aviator 9 26-28

KINGSLEY, CHARLES (1819-1875), English author and Anglican clergyman 9 28

KINGSLEY, HENRY (1830-1867), British author 22 278-280

KINGSLEY, MARY (1862-1900), English explorer and author 20 201-204

KINGSTON, MAXINE HONG (Maxine Ting Ting Hong; born 1940), Asian- American feminist author 18 231-232

KINNOCK, NEIL (born 1942), British Labour Party politician 9 29-30

KINO, EUSEBIO FRANCISCO (1645-1711), Spanish missionary, explorer, and cartographer 9 30-31

KINOSHITA, KEISUKE (1912-1998), Japanese screenwriter and film director/producer 24 206-208

KINSELLA, THOMAS (born 1928), Irish poet 35 221-222

KINSEY, ALFRED C. (1894-1956), American zoologist 9 31-32

KINSKI, KLAUS (1926-1991), German actor 38 182-184

KINUGASA, TEINOSUKE (Teinosuke Kogame; 1896-1982), Japanese screenwriter and film director 24 208-209

KIPLING, JOSEPH RUDYARD (1865-1936), British poet and short-story writer 9 32-33

KIPNIS, ALEXANDER (1891-1978), Ukrainian American musician 24 209-211

KIRBY, JACK (1917-1994), American comics artist 30 240-242

KIRCH, MARIA WINCKELMANN (1670-1720), German astronomer 20 204-205

KIRCHER, ATHANASIUS (c. 1601-1680), German polymath 27 209-211

KIRCHHOFF, GUSTAV ROBERT (1824-1887), German physicist 9 33-34

KIRCHNER, ERNST LUDWIG (1880-1938), German expressionist painter 9 34-35

KIRCHNER, NÉSTOR (1950-2010), Argentine president 2003-2007 34 206-208

KIRKLAND, JOSEPH LANE (1922-1999), American labor union movement leader 9 35-37

KIRKLAND, SAMUEL (1741-1808), American Congregationalist missionary 9 37

KIRKPATRICK, JEANE J. (1926-2006), professor and first woman U.S. ambassador to the United Nations 9 37-39

KIROV, SERGEI (1886-1934), Bolshevik leader 34 208-211

KIRSTEIN, LINCOLN (1906-1996), a founder and director of the New York City Ballet 9 39-41

KISHI, NOBUSUKE (1896-1987), Japanese politician 9 41-43

KISSINGER, HENRY ALFRED (born 1923), U.S. secretary of state and co-winner of the Nobel Peace prize 9 43-45

Kitaro (comic character)
          Mizuki, Shigeru 38 241-243

KITASATO, SHIBASABURA (1852-1931), Japanese bacteriologist 29 230-232

KITCHENER, HORATIO HERBERT (1850-1916), British field marshal and statesman 9 45-46

KITT, EARTHA (Eartha Mae Kitt-Fields; 1927-2008), African American actress and singer 26 194-197

Kiuprili, Ahmed
    see Köprülü, Ahmed

KIVI, ALEKSIS (Aleksis Stenvall; 1834-1872), Finnish author 25 246-247

KIWANUKA, BENEDICTO KAGIMA MUGUMBA (1922-1972), Ugandan politician 9 46-47

KLEE, PAUL (1879-1940), Swiss painter and graphic artist 9 47-49

KLEIN, A. M. (1909-1972), Canadian journalist, lawyer, novelist, and poet 9 49-50

KLEIN, CALVIN (born 1942), American fashion designer 9 50-52

KLEIN, MELANIE (1882-1960), Austrian psychotherapist 9 52

KLEIST, HEINRICH VON (1777-1811), German author 9 52-53

KLEMPERER, KLEMENS VON (1916-2012), German historian 34 211-213

KLEMPERER, OTTO (1885-1973), German conductor 20 205-207

KLIMA, VIKTOR (born 1947), Austrian chancellor 18 232-234

KLIMT, GUSTAV (1862-1918), controversial Austrian painter 9 53-55

KLINE, FRANZ (1910-1962), American painter 9 55

KLITZING, KLAUS VON (born 1943), German physicist 27 212-214

KLOPSTOCK, FRIEDRICH GOTTLIEB (1724-1803), German poet 9 55-56

KLUCKHOHN, CLYDE (1905-1960), American anthropologist 9 56-57

KLYUCHEVSKY, VASILY OSIPOVICH (1841-1911), Russian historian 9 57-58

Kmart (store)
          Kresge, S.S. 38 190-192

KNAPP, SEAMAN ASAHEL (1833-1911), American educator and agricultural pioneer 9 58

Knickerbocker, Diedrich
    see Irving, Washington

KNIEVEL, EVEL (1938-2007), American daredevil 33 177-179

KNIGHT, CHARLES R. (1874-1953), American illustrator and artist 30 242-244

KNIGHT, FRANK HYNEMAN (1885-1972), American economist 9 58-59

KNIGHT, MARGARET (1838-1914), American inventor 35 222-224

KNIGHT, PHIL (born 1938), American businessman 19 183-186

KNIPLING, EDWARD FRED (1909-2000), American entomologist 9 59-60

KNIPPER, OLGA (1868-1959), Russian actress 31 191-193

KNOPF, ALFRED A. (1892-1984), American publisher 9 60-61

KNOPF, BLANCHE WOLF (1894-1966), American publisher 9 61-62

KNOWLES, MALCOLM SHEPHERD (1913-1997), American adult education theorist and planner 9 62-64

KNOX, HENRY (1750-1806), American Revolutionary War general 9 64

KNOX, JOHN (c. 1505-1572), Scottish religious reformer 9 65-66

KNOX, PHILANDER CHASE (1853-1921), American statesman 9 66-67

KNUDSEN, WILLIAM S. (1879-1948), American auto industry leader 9 67-68

KOBAYASHI, MASAKI (1916-1996), Japanese film director 23 199-201

KOBAYASHI ISSA (1763-1828), Japanese poet 34 185-186

KOBER, ALICE (1906-1950), American linguist and scholar 34 213-214

Kobo Daishi
    see Kukai

KOCH, EDWARD I. (1924-2013), New York City mayor 9 68-69

KOCH, MARITA (Marita Meier-Koch; born 1957), German athlete 26 197-199

KOCH, ROBERT HEINRICH HERMANN (1843-1910), German physician and bacteriologist 9 69-70

KOCHIYAMA, YURI (1921-2014), Japanese-American activist 37 196-198

KODÁLY, ZOLTÁN (1882-1967), Hungarian composer 33 179-181

KOENIGSWARTER, PANNONICA DE (Kathleen Annie Pannonica de Koenigswarter; 1913-1988), Englishborn baroness and arts patron 38 184-186

KOEPPE, LEONHARD (1884-1969), German ophthalmologist 30 244-245

KOESTLER, ARTHUR (1905-1983), author of political novels 9 71-73

KOGAWA, JOY NOZOMI (née Na Kayama; born 1935), Japanese Canadian author and activist 25 247-250

KOHL, HELMUT (born 1930), chancellor of West Germany (1982-1990) and first chancellor of a united Germany since World War II 9 73-74

KOHN, WALTER (born 1923), German- American physicist 27 214-216

KOIRALA, ANURADHA (born 1949), Nepalese activist 37 198-201

KOIZUMI, JUNICHIRO (born 1942), Japanese prime minister 25 250-252

Koizumi, Yakumo
    see Hearn, Lafcadio

KOJONG (1852-1919), Korean king 9 74-75

KOKOSCHKA, OSKAR (1886-1980), Austrian painter, graphic artist, and author 9 75-76

KOLAKOWSKI, LESZEK (1927-2009), philosopher who wrote on broad themes of ethics, metaphysics, and religion 9 76-77

KOLÁŘ, JIRí (1914-2002), Czech artist and writer 35 224-227

KOLCHAK, ALEKSANDR VASILIEVICH (1873-1920), Russian admiral 9 77-78

KÖLLIKER, ALBERT VON (1817-1905), Swiss physician and histologist 38 186-188

KOLLONTAI, ALEKSANDRA MIKHAILOVNA (1872-1952), Soviet diplomat 9 79

KOLLWITZ, KÄTHE (1867-1945), German expressionist graphic artist and sculptor 9 79-81

KOLMOGOROV, ANDREI (1903-1987), Russian mathematician and educator 32 184-186

KOMITAS (1869-1935), Armenian composer 31 194-195

Komunistická strana Československa (KSCˇ)
    see Communist party–Czechoslovakia

KONEV, IVAN STEFANOVICH (1897-1973), Soviet marshal 9 81-82

KONG, LESLIE (1933-1971), Chinese- Jamaican reggae producer 35 227-228

KONOE, PRINCE FUMIMARO (or Konoye; 1891-1945), Japanese premier 1937-1939 and 1940-1941 9 82-83

KOO, WELLINGTON (1888-1985), Chinese statesman and diplomat 29 232-234

Kook, Abraham Isaac
    see Kuk, Abraham Isaac

KOOLHAAS, REM (born 1944), Dutch architect and urbanist 34 214-217

KOONS, JEFF (born 1955), American artist 9 83-84

KOOP, C. EVERETT (1916-2013), American surgeon general 18 235-237

KOPPEL, TED (born 1940), American television journalist 33 181-183

KÖPRÜLÜ, AHMED (Köprülüzade Fazil Ahmed Pasha; 1635-1676), Turkish statesman and general 9 84-85

KORBUT, OLGA (born 1955), Belarusian gymnast 24 211-213

KORCZAK, JANUSZ (1878-1942), Polish author and physician 34 217-219

KOREMATSU, FRED (1919-2005), American political activist 29 234-236

KORNBERG, ARTHUR (1918-2007), American biochemist 9 85-87

KORNILOV, LAVR GEORGIEVICH (1870-1918), Russian general 9 87-88

KOROMA, ERNEST BAI (born 1953), Sierra Leonean president 2007- 36 233-235

Kosan
    see Yun Sondo

KOSCIUSZKO, TADEUSZ ANDRZEJ BONAWENTURA (1746-1817), Polish patriot, hero in the American Revolution 9 88

KOSINSKI, JERZY (Jerzy Nikodem Lewinkopf; 1933-1991), Polish- American author 26 199-201

KOSSUTH, LOUIS (1802-1894), Hungarian statesman 9 88-90

Kostrowitsky, Wilhelm Apollinaris de
    see Apollinaire, Guillaume

KOSYGIN, ALEKSEI NIKOLAEVICH (1904-1980), chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers and head of the Soviet government (1964-1980) 9 90-91

KOTTANNER, HELENE (c. 1400-c. 1470), Austrian-Hungarian memoirist and courtier 38 188-190

KOTZEBUE, OTTO VON (1787-1846), Russian explorer 9 91-92

KOUFAX, SANDY (Sanford Braun; born 1945), American baseball player 20 208-210

KOUSSEVITZKY, SERGE (Sergey Aleksandrovich Kusevitsky;1874-1951), Russian-born American conductor 24 213-215

KOVACS, ERNIE (1919-1962), American comedian 19 186-188

KOVALEVSKY, SOPHIA VASILEVNA (Sonya Kovalevsky; 1850-1891), Russian mathematician 22 280-282

Kovtun, Dmitry, (born 1965), Russian businessperson
          Litvinenko, Alexander 38 214-216

KOZYREV, ANDREI VLADIMIROVICH (born 1951), Russian minister of foreign affairs and a liberal, pro-Western figure in Boris Yeltsin's cabinet 9 92-93

KPD
    see Communist party, German

KRAMER, LARRY (born 1935), American AIDS activist and author 20 210-212

KRAMER, STANLEY (1913-2001), American filmmaker 32 186-189

KRASNER, LEE (Lenore; 1908-1984), American painter and collage artist 9 93-94

KRAUS, KARL (1874-1936), Austrian writer 34 219-221

KRAVCHUK, LEONID MAKAROVYCH (born 1934), president of the Ukraine (1991-1994) 9 94-95

KREBS, SIR HANS ADOLF (1900-1981), German British biochemist 9 95-97

KREISKY, BRUNO (1911-1983), chancellor of Austria (1970-1983) 9 97-98

KREISLER, FRITZ (Friedrich Kreisler; 1875-1962), Austrian violinist 26 201-203

KREISLER, GEORG (1922-2011), Austrian composer, singer, pianist, and writer 37 201-203

Kremer, Gerhard
    see Mercator, Gerhardus

KRENEK, ERNST (1900-1991), Austrian composer 9 98-99

KREPS, JUANITA MORRIS (1921-2010), economist, university professor, United States secretary of commerce (1977-1979), and author 9 99-101

KRESGE, S.S. (Sebastian Spering Kresge, Jr.; 1867-1966), American business executive 38 190-192

KRIEGHOFF, CORNELIUS (1815-1872), Dutch-born Canadian painter 9 101

KRISHNAMURTI, JIDDU (1895-1986), Indian mystic and philosopher 9 101-103

KRISHNAMURTI, UPPALURI GOPALA (1918-2007), Indian philosopher and author 28 201-203

KRLEZA, MIROSLAV (1893-1981), Croatian author and poet 24 215-217

KROC, RAYMOND ALBERT (1902-1984), creator of theMcDonald's chain 9 103-104

KROCHMAL, NACHMAN KOHEN (1785-1840), Austrian Jewish historian 9 104-105

KROEBER, ALFRED LOUIS (1876-1960), American anthropologist 9 105-106

KROGH, SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERG (1874-1949), Danish physiologist 9 106

KRONE, JULIE (Julieanne Louise Krone; born 1963), American jockey 24 217-220

KROPOTKIN, PETER ALEKSEEVICH (1842-1921), Russian prince, scientist, and anarchist 9 107-108

KROTO, HAROLD WALTER (Harold Walter Krotoschiner; born 1939), British Chemist 27 216-218

KRUGER, STEPHANUS JOHANNES PAULUS (“Paul”; 1825-1904), South African statesman 9 108-109

KRUPA, GENE (Eugene Bertram Krupa; 1909-1973), American bandleader and drummer 38 192-194

KRUPP FAMILY (19th-20th century), German industrialists 9 109-111

KU CHIEH-KANG (1893-1980), Chinese historian 9 120-121

KU K'AI-CHIH (c. 345-c. 406), Chinese painter 9 125-126

KUANG-HSÜ (1871-1908), emperor of China 1875-1908 9 111-112

KUANG-WU-TI (6 BCE - 57 A.D.), Chinese emperor ca. 25-57 9 112-113

KUBITSCHEK DE OLIVEIRA, JUSCELINO (1902-1976), president of Brazil 1956-1961 9 113-115

KUBLAI KHAN (1215-1294), Mongol emperor 9 115-118

KÜBLER-ROSS, ELISABETH (1926-2004), Swiss-born American psychiatrist 9 118-120

KUBRICK, STANLEY (1928-1999), American filmmaker 18 237-239

KUCAN, MILAN (born 1941), President of the Republic of Slovenia 18 239-242

KUERTI, ANTON (born 1938), Austrian- Canadian pianist 35 228-230

KUFUOR, JOHN AGYEKUM (born 1938), president of Ghana 27 218-220

KUHN, BOWIE (1926-2007), American baseball commissioner 33 183-185

KUHN, MAGGIE (1905-1995), American activist and founder of the Gray Panthers 19 188-190

KUHN, THOMAS SAMUEL (1922-1996), American historian and philosopher of science 9 121-123

KUK, ABRAHAM ISAAC (1865-1935), Russian-born Jewish scholar 9 123-124

KUKAI (774-835), Japanese Buddhist monk 9 124-125

KUKRIT PRAMOJ, MOMRAJAWONG (M.R.; 1911-1995), literary figure and prime minister of Thailand (1975-1976) 9 126-127

KULTHUM, UMM (Ibrahim Umm Kalthum; 1904-1975), Egyptian musician 24 220-222

Kumara Siladitya
    see Harsha

KUMARAJIVA (c. 344-c. 409), Indian Buddhist monk 9 127

KUMARATUNGA, CHANDRIKA (Chandrika Bandaranaike; born 1945), Sri Lankan politician 25 252-254

KUMIN, MAXINE WINOKUR (born 1925), American poet and author 26 203-206

KUN, BÉLA (1885-1937), Hungarian revolutionary 34 221-223

Kunani
    see Suleiman I

KUNDERA, MILAN (born 1929), Czechborn author 9 128-129

KÜNG, HANS (born 1928), Swiss-born Roman Catholic theologian 9 129-130

Kung-sun Yang
    see Shang Yang

KUNIN, MADELEINE MAY (born 1933), first woman governor of Vermont 9 130-131

KUNITZ, STANLEY JASSPON (1905-2006), American poet laureate 22 282-284

KUNSTLER, WILLIAM M. (1919-1995), American civil rights attorney and author 9 131-133

KUO MO-JO (1892-1978), Chinese author 9 133-134

KUPKA, FRANTISEK (Frank; 1871-1957), Czech painter and illustrator 9 134-135

Kupper, C.E.M.
    see Doesburg, Theo van

Kuprili, Ahmed
    see Köprülü, Ahmed

KURAS, ELLEN (born 1959), American cinematographer and director 32 189-191

KURON, JACEK (Jacek Jan Kuron; 1934-2004), Polish trade union advisor and politician 28 203-206

KUROSAWA, AKIRA (1910-1998), Japanese film director 9 135-137

KURTZMAN, HARVEY (1924-1993), American cartoonist 32 191-193

Kurtzman, Jacob
    see Kirby, Jack

KURZWEIL, RAY (born 1948), American inventor 30 246-248

KUSHNER, TONY (born 1956), American playwright 33 185-187

KUTUZOV, MIKHAIL ILARIONOVICH (1745-1813), Russian field marshal 9 137-138

KUZNETS, SIMON (1901-1985), American economist, researcher, and author 9 138-139

Kuznetsov
    see Litvinov, Maxim Maximovich

KWANGGAET'O (375-413), Korean statesman, king of Koguryo 9 139-140

KWANGJONG (925-975), Korean statesman, king of Koryo 9 140

KWASNIEWSKI, ALEKSANDER (born 1954), Polish politician 27 220-222

KWOLEK, STEPHANIE (1923-2014), American chemist 31 196-198

KY, NGUYEN CAO (1923-2011), South Vietnamese statesman 33 187-189

KYD, THOMAS (1558-1594), English dramatist 9 140-141

KYDONES, DEMETRIUS (c. 1324-1397), Byzantine theologian and statesman 34 67-68

KYPRIANOU, SPYROS (1932-2002), president of the Republic of Cyprus 9 141-143

L

LA BRUYÈRE, JEAN DE (1645-1696), French man of letters and moralist 9 145

LA FARGE, JOHN (1835-1910), American artist and writer 9 149-150

LA FAYETTE, COMTESSE DE (Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne; 1634-93), French novelist 9 150-151

LA FLESCHE, FRANCIS (1857-1932), Native American ethnologist 9 152-154

LA FLESCHE, SUSETTE (1854-1903), Native American activist and reformer 9 152-154

LA FLESCHE PICOTTE, SUSAN (1865-1915), Native American physician and activist 24 223-225

LA FOLLETTE, ROBERT MARION (1855-1925), American statesman 9 155-156

LA FONTAINE, JEAN DE (1621-1695), French poet 9 156-157

LA GUARDIA, FIORELLO HENRY (1882-1947), American politician, New York City mayor 9 166-167

LA METTRIE, JULIEN OFFRAY DE (1709-1751), French physician and philosopher 9 179-180

La Pasionaria
    see Ibárruri Gomez, Dolores

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, FRANÇOIS, DUC DE (1613-1680), French moralist 9 208-209

LA SALLE, SIEUR DE (René Robert Cavelier; 1643-1687), French explorer and colonizer 9 210-211

LA TOUR, GEORGE DE (1593-1652), French painter 9 222

LA VERENDRYE, SIEUR DE (Pierre Gaultier de Varennes; 1685-1749), French- Canadian soldier, explorer, and fur trader 9 239-240

La Vergne, Marie Madeleine Pioche de
    see La Fayette, Comtesse de

LABADIE, JEAN DE (1610-1674), French religious leader 34 224-226

LABATT, JOHN KINDER (c. 1803-1866), Irish-Canadian brewer 34 226-228

Labour Party (England)
          Mosley, Oswald 38 250-252

Labriolle
    see Velasco Ibarra, José María

LABROUSTE, PIERRE FRANÇOIS HENRI (1801-1875), French architect-engineer 9 144

Labrunie, Gérard
    see Nerval, Gérard de

LACAN, JACQUES (1901-1981), French psychoanalyst 9 145-147

LACHAISE, GASTON (1882-1935), French-born American sculptor 9 147

LACHAPELLE, MARIE (1769-1821), French obstetrician and teacher 21 245-247

Lackland, John
    see John (king of England)

LACKS, HENRIETTA (1920-1951), American cell donor 31 199-200

LACOMBE, ALBERT (1827-1916), Canadian missionary priest 9 147-148

LACORDAIRE, JEAN BAPTISTE HENRI (1802-1861), French Dominican preacher 9 148

LACOSTE, RENÉ (1904-1996), French tennis player 37 204-206

LACY, SAM (Samuel Harold Lacy; 1903-2003), African American journalist 26 207-209

LADD, ALAN (1913-1964), American actor 38 195-197

LADD, WILLIAM (1778-1841), American pacifist 9 149

LADD-FRANKLIN, CHRISTINE (1847-1930), American logician and psychologist 23 202-204

Ladislas V, (Ladislas Posthumus; 1440-1457), king of Hungary 1446-1452 and of Bohemia 1452-1457
          Kottanner, Helene 38 188-190

LAEMMLE, CARL, SR. (1867-1943), American film producer 30 249-251

LAENNEC, RENÉ (René-Théophile- Hyacinthe Laënnec; 1781-1826), French physician and inventor 21 247-249

LAFAYETTE, MARQUIS DE (Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier; 1757-1834), French general and statesman 9 151-152

LAFLEUR, GUY (born 1951), Canadian hockey player 34 228-230

LAFONTAINE, SIR LOUIS-HIPPOLYTE (1807-1864), Canadian politician 9 157-158

LAFONTAINE, OSKAR (born 1943), German politician 9 158-160

LAFORGUE, JULES (1860-1887), French poet 9 160-161

LAGERFELD, KARL (born 1938), German- French designer of high fashion 9 161-162

LAGERKVIST, PÄR FABIAN (1891-1974), Swedish author 9 162-163

LAGERLÖ F, SELMA OTTILIANA LOVISA (1858-1940), Swedish author 9 163-164

Lagery, Otto de
    see Urban II

LAGOS, RICARDO (born 1938), president of Chile 27 223-225

LAGRANGE, JOSEPH LOUIS (1736-1813), Italian-born French mathematician 9 164-166

LAHR, BERT (Irving Lahrheim; 1895-1967), performer and comedian in burlesque, vaudeville, musical comedy, film, and television 9 167-168

LAING, R. D. (1927-1989), Scottish psychiatrist and author 26 209-211

LAIRD, MELVIN R. (born 1922), U.S. congressman and secretary of defense 9 168-170

Lake, Veronica, (1922-1973), American actor
          Ladd, Alan 38 195-197

LAKSHMIBAI (Laksmi Bai; Rani of Jhansi; c.1835-1857), Indian queen and national hero 22 41-42

LALIBELA (ruled c. 1181-c. 1221), Ethiopian king and saint 9 170

LALIQUE, RENÉ (1860-1945), French glass and jewelry designer 26 211-213

LAMAR, LUCIUS QUINTUS CINCINNATUS (1825-1893), American politician and jurist 9 170-171

LAMARCK, CHEVALIER DE (Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet; 1744-1829), French naturalist 9 171-173

LAMARQUE, LIBERTAD (Libertad Lamarque Bouza; 1908-2000), Argentine entertainer 26 213-215

LAMARR, HEDY (Hedwig Eva Marie Kiesler; 1913-2000), American actress and inventor 27 225-227

LAMARTINE, ALPHONSE MARIE LOUIS DE (1790-1869), French poet and diplomat 9 173-175

LAMAS, CARLOS SAAVEDRA (1878-1959), Argentine scholar, statesman, and diplomat 9 175-176

LAMB, CHARLES (1775-1834), English author, critic, and minor poet 9 176-177

LAMB, MARY (1764-1847), English author 29 237-239

Lamb, William
    see Melbourne, 2nd Viscount

LAMBORGHINI, FERRUCCIO (1916-1993), Italian manufacturing executive 34 230-232

LAMBSDORFF, OTTO GRAF (1926-2009), West German minister of economics 9 177-179

Lambton, John George
    see Durham, 1st Earl of

Lame-duck Amendment
    see Constitution of the United States–20th Amendment

LAMENNAIS, HUGUES FÉLICITÉ ROBERT DE (1782-1854), French priest and political writer 9 179

Lamo Dondup
    see Dalai Lama

LAMOTT, ANNE (born 1954), American writer 32 196-198

L'AMOUR, LOUIS (Louis Dearborn LaMoore; 1908-1988), American author of westerns 20 213-215

LAMPMAN, ARCHIBALD (1861-1899), Canadian poet 9 180-181

LAMPRECHT, KARL (1856-1915), German historian 9 181

LAMY, JEAN BAPTISTE (1814-1888), French archbishop in the United States 9 181-182

Lancaster, 5th Duke of
    see John of Gaunt

LANCASTER, BURT (Burton Stephen Lancaster; 1913-1994), American actor 20 215-218

LANCASTER, JOSEPH (1778-1838), English educator 9 182-183

LAND, EDWIN HERBERT (1909-1991), American physicist, inventor, and manufacturer 9 183-184

LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH (1908-1968), Soviet theoretical physicist 9 184-185

Landers, Ann
    see Lederer, Esther Pauline

LANDINI, FRANCESCO (c. 1335-1397), Italian composer and poet 9 185-186

LANDIS, KENESAW MOUNTAIN (1866-1944), American baseball commissioner 22 285-287

LANDON, ALFRED MOSSMAN (1887-1987), American politician 22 287-289

LANDOR, WALTER SAVAGE (1775-1864), English poet, essayist and critic 9 186-187

LANDOWSKA, WANDA (1879-1959), Polish American harpsichordist and pianist 26 215-218

LANDOWSKI, MARCEL (1915-1999), French composer of lyric works 9 187-188

LANDRY, TOM (Thomas Wade Landry; 1924-2000), American football coach 22 290-292

LANDSTEINER, KARL (1868-1943), Austrian-born American immunologist 9 188-189

Lane, Carrie
    see Catt, Carrie Chapman

LANE, DICK (Richard Lane; Dick “Night Train” Lane; 1928-2002), American football player 27 227-229

LANE, FITZ HUGH (1804-1865), American marine painter 9 189

LANFRANC (c. 1010-1089), Italian theologian, archbishop of Canterbury 9 189-190

LANG, FRITZ (1890-1976), German film director 9 190-192

LANG, JOHN THOMAS (1876-1975), Australian politician 9 192-193

LANGDELL, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (1826-1906), American lawyer 23 204-206

LANGE, DOROTHEA (1895-1965), American photographer 9 193-194

LANGER, SUSANNE (nee Susanne Katherina Knauth; 1895-1985), American philosopher 26 218-220

LANGLAND, WILLIAM (c. 1330-1400), English poet 9 194-195

LANGLEY, SAMUEL PIERPONT (1834-1906), American scientist 9 195-196

LANGLOIS, HENRI (1914-1977), French film preservationist 33 190-192

LANGMUIR, IRVING (1881-1957), American chemist 9 196-197

LANGSTON, JOHN MERCER (1829-1897), American educator and diplomat 9 197

LANGTON, STEPHEN (c. 1155-1228), English prelate and signer of the Magna Carta 21 249-251

Language (human communications)
          Victor of Aveyron 38 349-351

LANIER, JARON (born c. 1961), American computer engineer 9 198-199

LANIER, SIDNEY (1842-1881), American poet, critic, and musician 9 199-200

LANSING, ROBERT (1864-1928), American lawyer and statesman 9 200

LANSKY, MEYER (1902-1983), American gangster 36 236-238

Lao Lai Tzu
    see Lao Tzu

LAO SHÊ (1899-1966), Chinese novelist 9 200-201

LAO TZU (flourished 6th century BCE), Chinese philosopher 9 201-202

LAPLACE, MARQUIS DE (Pierre Simon; 1749-1827), French mathematician 9 202-204

Larco, Isabel Granda
    see Granda, Chabuca

LARDNER, RINGGOLD WILMER (1885-1933), American author 9 204-205

LAREDO, RUTH (nee Ruth Meckler; 1937-2005), American pianist 26 220-222

LARIONOV, MIKHAIL (1881-1964), Russian artist 9 205-206

LARKIN, PHILIP (1922-1986), English poet 9 206-207

LARKIN, THOMAS OLIVER (1802-1858), American merchant and diplomat 9 208

LAROUCHE, LYNDON (Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche, Jr.; born 1922), American political activist 38 197-200

LARROCHA, ALICIA DE (Alicia de Larrocha y de la Calle; 1923-2009), Spanish painist 27 230-231

LARSEN, NELLA (1893-1963), Harlem Renaissance writer 9 209-210

LARSON, JONATHAN (1961-1996), American playwright, composer, and lyricist 18 243-145

LARSSON, STIEG (1954-2004), Swedish author 30 251-253

LAS CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE (1474-1566), Spanish Dominican missionary and historian 35 231-233

Lasal, Ferdinand
    see Lassalle, Ferdinand

LASANSKY, MAURICIO (1914-2012), Argentine-American artist 34 232-233

LASCH, CHRISTOPHER (1932-1994), American historian and social critic 9 212-214

LASHLEY, KARL SPENCER (1890-1958), American neuropsychologist 9 214-215

LASKER, ALBERT (1880-1952), American advertising executive 21 251-254

LASKER, EMANUEL (1868-1941), German chess grandmaster 20 218-220

LASKI, HAROLD J. (1893-1950), English political scientist and Labour party leader 9 215-216

LASKY, JESSE (1880-1958), American film producer 21 254-256

LASSALLE, FERDINAND (1825-1864), German socialist leader 9 216

Lasso, Orlando di
    see Lassus, Roland de

LASSUS, ROLAND DE (1532-1594), Franco-Flemish composer 9 216-218

LASSWELL, HAROLD DWIGHT (1902-1978), American political scientist 9 218-219

LÁSZLÓ I, KING OF HUNGARY (c. 1040-1095), king of Hungary and saint 9 219-221

LATIMER, ALLIE B. (born 1929), American lawyer and civil rights activist 32 199-201

LATIMER, HUGH (c. 1492-1555), English Protestant bishop, reformer, and martyr 9 221

LATIMER, LEWIS (1848-1928), American inventorandelectrical engineer 19 191-193

Latin America
    anthropological expeditions
          Mantegazza, Paolo 38 230-233

LATROBE, BENJAMIN HENRY (1764-1820), English-born American architect 9 222-224

LATYNINA, LARISA (Larissa Semyonovna Latynina; born 1934), Russian gymnast 26 222-224

LAUD, WILLIAM (1573-1645), English archbishop of Canterbury 9 224-225

LAUDA, NIKI (born 1949), Austrian race car driver 34 233-236

LAUDER, ESTEE (née Josephine Esthe Menzer; c. 1908-2004), founder of international cosmetics empire 9 225-226

Laue, Max von
    see von Laue, Max

Lauenburg, Duke of
    see Bismarck, Otto Edward Leopold von

LAUGHLIN, TOM (Thomas Robert Laughlin, Jr.; 1931-2013), American movie director and actor 37 206-209

LAUREL, SALVADOR H. (Doy; 1928-2004), member of the Philippine Congress and vice-president 9 226-227

LAUREN, RALPH (Ralph Lipschitz; born 1939), American fashion designer 9 228-229

LAURENCE, MARGARET (Jean Margaret Wemyss; 1926-1987), Canadian writer 9 229-230

LAURENS, HENRI (1885-1954), French sculptor 9 230-231

LAURENS, HENRY (1724-1792), American merchant and Revolutionary statesman 9 232

LAURIER, SIR WILFRID (1841-1919), Canadian statesman, prime minister 1896-1911 9 232-234

LAURO, ACHILLE (1887-1984), Italian business and political leader 9 234-235

LAUTARO (c. 1535-1557), Araucanian Indian chieftain in Chile 9 235

LAUTERBUR, PAUL C. (1929-2007), American scientist 34 236-238

Lavado, Joaquín Salvador
    see Quino

LAVAL, FRANCOIS XAVIER DE (1623-1708), French bishop in Canada 9 235-236

LAVAL, PIERRE (1883-1945), French politician, chief Vichy minister 9 237-238

LAVALLEJA, JUAN ANTONIO (1778-1853), Uruguayan independence leader 9 238-239

LAVER, ROD (Rodney George Laver; born 1938), Australian tennis player 25 257-259

LAVERAN, ALPHONSE (Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran; 1845-1922), French medical researcher 28 207-209

LAVEY, ANTON SZANDOR (1930-1997), American satanist leader 31 201-203

LAVIERA, TATO (1950-2013), Puerto Rican poet 35 233-235

LAVIGERIE, CHARLES MARTEL ALLEMAND (1825-1892), French cardinal 9 240

LAVISSE, ERNEST (1842-1922), French historian 9 241

LAVOISIER, ANTOINE LAURENT (1743-1794), French chemist 9 241-244

LAVOISIER, MARIE PAULZE (1758-1836), French chemist 22 292-294

LAW, JOHN (1671-1729), Scottish monetary theorist and banker 9 244-245

LAW, WILLIAM (1686-1761), English devotional writer 9 245-246

Law enforcement
          Anslinger, Harry J. 38 7-10

Lawman
    see Layamon

LAWRENCE, ABBOTT (1792-1855), American manufacturer and diplomat 9 246

LAWRENCE, DAVID HERBERT (1885-1930), English novelist, poet, and essayist 9 247-248
          Leavis, F.R. 38 200-201

LAWRENCE, ERNEST ORLANDO (1901-1958), American physicist 9 248-250

LAWRENCE, FLORENCE (Florence Annie Bridgwood; 1886-1938), Canadian-born American actress 28 209-211

LAWRENCE, JACOB (1917-2000), African American painter 9 250-251

LAWRENCE, JAMES (1781-1813), American naval officer 9 251-252

LAWRENCE, SIR THOMAS (1769-1830), English portrait painter 9 252-253

LAWRENCE, THOMAS EDWARD (1888-1935), British soldier and author 9 253-254

Lawrence of Arabia
    see Lawrence, Thomas Edward

LAWSON, HENRY (1867-1922), Australian poet and short-story writer 9 254-255

LAWSON, JERRY (Gerald Anderson Lawson; 1940-2011), American engineer 37 209-210

LAWSON, THOMAS WILLIAM (1857-1925), American entrepreneur and reformer 9 255-256

Lawyers
    see Jurists

LAYAMON (flourished c. 1200), English poet 9 256-257

LAYBOURNE, GERALDINE (born 1947), American businesswoman 26 224-226

LAYE, CAMARA (1928-1980), Guinean novelist 9 257-259

LAZARSFELD, PAUL F. (1901-1976), American sociologist 9 259-260

LAZARUS, EMMA (1849-1887), American poet and playwright 9 260-261

LAZARUS, SHELLY (Rochelle Braff; born 1947), American businesswoman 27 231-233

LE BON, GUSTAVE (1841-1931), French social scientist and philosopher 9 268-269

LE BROCQUY, LOUIS (1916-2012), Irish artist 34 238-239

LE BRUN, CHARLES (1619-1690), French painter, decorator, and draftsman 9 269-270

LE CARRE, JOHN (born David Cornwell, 1931), British spy novelist 9 270-271

LE CORBUSIER (Charles Édouard Jeanneret-Gris; 1887-1965), Swiss architect, city planner, and painter 9 274-275

LE DUAN (1908-1986), North Vietnamese leader and later head of the government of all Vietnam 29 150-153

LE FANU, JOSEPH SHERIDAN (1814-1873), Irish author 23 206-208

LE GUIN, URSULA KROEBER (born 1929), American author 18 249-251

LE JEUNE, CLAUDE (c. 1530-1600), Flemish composer 9 314-315

Le Moyne, Pierre
    see Iberville, Sieur d'

LE NAIN BROTHERS, 17th-century French painters 9 321-322

LE NÔTRE, ANDRÉ (or Le Nostre; 1613-1700), French landscape architect 9 328-329

LE PEN, JEAN MARIE (born 1928), French political activist of the radical right 9 348-350

LE PLAY, GUILLAUME FRÉDÉRIC (1806-1882), French sociologist and economist 9 350-351

Le Prestre, Sébastien
    see Vauban, Marquis de

LE VAU, LOUIS (1612-1670), French architect 9 360-361

LEA, HENRY CHARLES (1825-1909), American historian 9 261-262

LEA, TOM (1907-2001), American artist and author 32 201-202

LEACOCK, RICHARD (1921-2011), British filmmaker 32 202-205

LEADBELLY (Huddie William Leadbetter; 1885-1949), African American folk singer 23 208-211

League of Nations (1919-1946)
    Covenant
          Jebb, Eglantyne 38 161-163

LEAKEY, LOUIS SEYMOUR BAZETT (1903-1972), British anthropologist 9 262

LEAKEY, MARY DOUGLAS (1913-1996), English archaeologist 9 263-264

LEAKEY, RICHARD ERSKINE FRERE (born 1944), Kenyan researcher in human prehistory and wildlife conservationist 9 264-265

LEAN, DAVID (1908-1991), English film director and producer 29 239-241

LEAR, EDWARD (1812-1888), English writer and artist 9 265-266

LEAR, NORMAN (born 1922), American author and television director and producer 19 193-195

LEARY, TIMOTHY (1920-1996), American psychologist, author, lecturer, and cult figure 9 266-267

LEASE, MARY ELIZABETH CLYENS (1853-1933), American writer and politician 9 268

LEAVIS, F.R. (1895-1978), English literary critic and educator 38 200-201

LEAVITT, HENRIETTA SWAN (1868-1921), American astronomer 23 211-213

LEBED, ALEXANDER IVANOVICH (1950-2002), Russian general and politician 18 245-247

LEBLANC, NICOLAS (1742-1806), French industrial chemist 21 256-258

LECKY, WILLIAM EDWARD HARTPOLE (1838-1903), Anglotrish historian and essayist 9 271-272

Leclerc, Georges Louis
    see Buffon, Comte de

LECLERC, JACQUES PHILIPPE (1902-1947), French general 9 272-273

LECLERCQ, TANAQUIL (Tanny; 1929-2000), French American dancer 27 234-235

LECONTE DE LISLE, CHARLES MARIE RENÉ (1818-1894), French poet 9 273-274

LECUONA, ERNESTO (Ernesto Sixto de la Asuncion Lecuona y Casado; 1896-1963), Cuban musician 23 213-216

LED ZEPPELIN (1968-1980), British “Heavy Metal” band 23 216-218

LEDBETTER, LILLY (born 1938), American women's equality advocate 32 205-207

LEDERBERG, JOSHUA (1925-2008), Nobel Prize winning geneticist 9 275-277

LEDERER, ESTHER PAULINE (Ann Landers; 1918-2002), American Columnist 25 255-257

LEDOUX, CLAUDE NICOLAS (1736-1806), French architect 9 277-278

LEE, MOTHER ANN (1736-1784), religious and social reformer and founder of the Shakers 9 289-290

LEE, ARTHUR (1740-1792), American statesman and diplomat 9 288-289

LEE, ARTHUR (1945-2006), American rock musician and songwriter 38 202-204

LEE, BRUCE (1940-1973), Asian American actor and martial arts master 18 247-249

LEE, CHARLES (1731-1782), American general 22 294-297

LEE, HARPER (Nelle Harper Lee; born 1926), American author 20 220-222

LEE, MING CHO (born 1930), American scene designer for theater and opera 9 289-290

LEE, PEGGY (1920-2002), American singer 32 207-209

LEE, RICHARD HENRY (1732-1794), American patriot and statesman 9 291-292

LEE, ROBERT EDWARD (1807-1870), American army officer and Confederate general in chief 9 292-294

LEE, ROSE (Rose Hum; 1904-1964), American sociologist 21 258-260

LEE, SPIKE (born Sheldon Jackson Lee; born 1957), African American actor, author, and filmmaker 9 295-299

LEE, STAN (born 1922), American comics artist 30 253-255

LEE, TSUNG-DAO (born 1926), Chineseborn American physicist 9 299-300

LEE, YUAN TSEH (born 1936), Taiwanese American scientist and educator 23 218-220

LEE HSIEN LOONG (born 1952), Singaporean soldier and deputy prime minister 9 280-281

LEE JONG-WOOK (1945-2006), Korean physician and head of the World Health Organization 27 235-238

LEE KUAN YEW (born 1923), prime minister of Singapore (1959-1988) 9 281-283

LEE TENG-HUI (born 1923), president of the Republic of China (1988-) 9 283-285

Leeds, University of (England)
          Hill, Geoffrey 38 138-140

LEEKPAI, CHUAN (born 1938), Thai prime minister 24 225-228

LEEUWENHOEK, ANTON VAN (1632-1723), Dutch naturalist and microscopist 9 300-301

LEFEBVRE, GEORGES (1874-1959), French historian 9 301-302

Léger, Alexis Saint-Léger
    see Perse, Saint-John

LÉGER, FERNAND (1881-1955), French painter 9 302-303

Leggi fascistissime, le
    see Fascist regime (Italy)

LEGHARI, SARDAR FAROOQ AHMED KHAN (1940-2010), president of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 9 303-305

LEGINSKA, ETHEL (Ethel Liggins; 1886-1970), English American musician 23 220-222

Legislative Assembly (French Revolution)
    see French Revolution–1789-91 (Legislative Assembly), 1792-95 (National Convention)

LEGUÍA Y SALCEDO, AUGUSTO BERNARDINO (1863-1932), Peruvian president 1908-12 and 1919-30 9 305-306

LEHMAN, ERNEST (1915-2005), American screenwriter 26 226-229

LEHMAN, HERBERT HENRY (1878-1963), American banker and statesman 9 306-307

LEHMANN, INGE (1888-1993), Danish seismologist 37 210-213

LEHMANN, LOTTE (1888-1976), German- American soprano 31 204-206

Lehmann, Walter
    see Harwood, Gwen

LEHMBRUCK, WILHELM (1881-1919), German sculptor 9 307

Leiber, Jerry
    see Leiber and Stoller

LEIBER AND STOLLER (Jerry Leiber; 1933-2011, and Mike Stoller; born 1933), American songwriters and producers 32 209-212

LEIBNIZ, GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON (1646-1716), German mathematician and philosopher 9 307-310

LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE (born 1949), Ameircan photographer 9 310-312

LEICESTER, EARL OF (Robert Dudley; c. 1532-1588), English politician 9 312-313

Leicester, 6th Earl of
    see Montfort, Simon de

LEICHHARDT, LUDWIG (1813-c. 1848), German naturalist and explorer 38 204-206

LEIDY, JOSEPH (1823-1891), American scientist and educator 37 213-215

LEIGH, MIKE (born 1943), British director and screenwriter 23 222-225

LEIGH, VIVIEN (Vivian Mary Hartley; 1913-1967), British actress 18 251-253

LEISLER, JACOB (1640-1691), American colonial leader 9 313-314

LEITZEL, LILLIAN (born Leopoldina Altitza Pelikan; 1892-1931), German aerialist 23 225-227

LELY, SIR PETER (1618-1680), Germanborn painter active in England 9 315
          Gibbons, Grinling 38 112-115

LEM, STANISLAW (1921-2006), Polish author 27 238-240

LEMAÎTRE, ABBÈ GEORGES ÉDOUARD (1894-1966), Belgian astronomer 9 315-316

LEMAY, CURTIS E. (1906-1990), United States combat leader (World War II) and Air Force chief of staff 9 316-318

LEMBEDE, ANTON (1913-1947), leader of black resistance to white supremacy in South Africa 9 318-319

LEMIEUX, MARIO (born 1965), Canadian hockey player and team owner 20 222-224

LEMMON, JACK (John Uhler Lemmon; 1925-2001), American actor 22 297-299

LEMNITZER, LYMAN LOUIS (Lem; 1899-1988), American soldier-statesman and strategist and NATO architect 9 319-320

LEMOND, GREG (born 1961), American cyclist 37 215-217

LENARD, PHILIPP (Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard; 1862-1947), Hungarianborn German physicist 25 259-261

L'ENFANT, PIERRE CHARLES (1754-1825), French-born American architect 9 322-323

L'ENGLE, MADELEINE (1918-2007), American author 18 253-255

LENGLEN, SUZANNE (1899-1938), French tennis player 19 195-197

LENIHAN, BRIAN, JR. (1959-2011), Irish politician 34 240-242

LENIN, VLADIMIR ILICH (1870-1924), Russian statesman 9 323-326

LENNON, JOHN (1940-1980), English songwriter and musician 9 326-328

LENORMAND, MARIE ANNE (1772-1843), French fortune teller 38 206-209

LENYA, LOTTE (1900-1981), Austrian- American singer 29 241-242

LENZ, WILHELM VON (1809-1883), Russian musicologist 29 243-245

LEO I (c. 400-461), saint and pope 440-461 9 329-330

LEO III (the Isaurian; c. 680-741), Byzantine emperor 717-741 9 330-332

LEO IX, ST. (Bruno of Egisheim; 1002-1054), pope 1049-1054 9 332

LEO X (Giovanni de' Medici; 1475-1521), pope 1513-1521 9 332-334

LEO XII (Annibale Sermattai della Genga; 1760-1829), Italian Roman Catholic pope (1823-1829) 26 297-299

LEO XIII (Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci; 1810-1903), pope 1878-1903 9 334-336

LEO AFRICANUS (c. 1487-c. 1554), Spanish-Moroccan diplomat and traveler 37 3-5

Leo Hebraeus
    see Levi ben Gershon

LEON, MOSES DE (c. 1250-1305), Jewish mystic 9 336

LEONARD, BUCK (1907-1997), American baseball player 33 192-194

LEONARD, DANIEL (1740-1829), American loyalist lawyer and essayist 9 336-337

LEONARD, ELMORE (1925-2013), American writer 32 212-214

LEONARD, SUGAR RAY (Ray Charles Leonard; born 1956), American boxer 24 228-231

LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519), Italian painter, sculptor, architect, and scientist 9 337-340

Leonardo of Pisa
    see Fibonacci, Leonardo

LEONE, SERGIO (1929-1989), Italian movie director 38 209-211

LEONIDAS I (c. 530 BCE - 480 BCE), Spartan king 9 340-343

LÉONIN (Leoninus; flourished c. 1165-1185), French composer 9 343-344

LEONOWENS, ANNA (1831-1915), British author and educator 36 238-240

LEOPARDI, CONTE GIACOMO (1798-1837), Italian poet 9 344-345

LEOPOLD I (1790-1865), king of Belgium 1831-1865 9 345-346

Leopold I (Duke of Tuscany)
    see Leopold II (Holy Roman emperor)

LEOPOLD II (1747-1792), Holy Roman emperor 1790-1792 9 346

LEOPOLD II (1835-1909), king of Belgium 1865-1909 9 346-347

LEOPOLD III (1901-1983), king of Belgium 1934-1951 9 347-348

LEOPOLD, ALDO (1887-1948), American author and conservationist 28 211-213

Leopold, Duke of Brabant
    see Leopold III (king of Belgium)

Lepoqo
    see Moshweshwe

LEPSIUS, KARL RICHARD (1810-1884), German Egyptologist and linguist 30 256-258

LERDO DE TEJADA, MIGUEL (1812-1861), Mexican liberal politician 9 351-352

LERMONTOV, MIKHAIL YURIEVICH (1814-1841), Russian poet and prose writer 9 352-353

LERNER, ALAN JAY (1918-1986), American lyricist/librettist 20 224-226

LESAGE, ALAIN RENÉ (1668-1747), French novelist and playwright 9 353-354

LESCHETIZKY, THEODOR (1830-1915), Polish composer and pianist 31 207-208

LESCOT, PIERRE (1500/1515-1578), French architect 9 354

LESLIE, LISA (born 1972), American basketball player 37 217-219

LESPINASSE, JULIE DE (1732-1776), French writer 32 214-216

LESSEPS, VICOMTE DE (Ferdinand Marie; 1805-1894), French diplomat 9 354-355

LESSING, DORIS (Doris May Taylor; 1919-2013), South African expatriate writer 9 355-357

LESSING, GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM (1729-1781), German philosopher, dramatist, and critic 9 357-359

LETCHER, JOHN (1813-1884), American politician 9 359-360

LETTERMAN, DAVID (born 1947), American comedian 26 229-231

LEVANT, OSCAR (1906-1972), American composer and pianist 19 197-199

LEVERRIER, URBAIN JEAN JOSEPH (1811-1877), French mathematical astronomer 9 361-362

LÉVESQUE, RENÉ (1922-1987), premier of the province of Quebec, Canada (1976-1985) 9 362-363

Levi
    see Matthew, Saint

LEVI, CARLO (1902-1975), Italian writer and painter 9 364

LEVI, PRIMO (1919-1987), Italian author and chemist 9 365-366

LÉVI, SYLVAIN (1863-1935), French scholar and Asian cultures expert 30 258-260

LEVI BEN GERSHON (1288-c. 1344), French Jewish scientist, philosopher, and theologian 9 363-364

LEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA (1909-2012), Italian-American biologist who discovered the nerve growth factor 9 366-368

LÉVI-STRAUSS, CLAUDE GUSTAVE (1908-2009), French social anthropologist 9 371-372

LEVINAS, EMMANUEL (1906-1995), Jewish philosopher 9 368-369

LEVINE, JAMES (born 1943), American conductor and pianist 9 369-371

LEVITT, HELEN (1913-2009), American photographer 30 260-261

LEVITT, WILLIAM (1907-1994), American real estate developer 19 199-201

LÉVY, BERNARD-HENRI (BHL; born 1948), French philosopher and author 28 213-215

LEVY, DAVID (born 1937), Israeli minister of foreign affairs and deputy prime minister 9 373-374

LÉVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN (1857-1939), French philosopher and anthropologist 9 374-375

LEW, HARRY (1884-1963), American basketball player 36 241-243

LEWIN, KURT (1890-1947), German- American social psychologist 9 375-376

LEWIS, ANDREW (c. 1720-1781), American general in the Revolution 9 376-377

LEWIS, BERNARD (born 1916), Britishborn American historian 38 211-213

LEWIS, CARL (born Frederick Carlton Lewis; born 1961), African American track and field athlete 9 377-380

LEWIS, CECIL DAY (1904-1972), British poet and essayist 9 380

LEWIS, CLARENCE IRVING (1883-1964), American philosopher 9 381

LEWIS, CLIVE STAPLES (C.S.; 1898-1963), British novelist and essayist 9 381-382
          MacDonald, George 38 224-227

LEWIS, EDMONIA (Mary Edmomia Lewis; Wildfire; c. 1840-c. 1909), American sculptor 28 215-217

LEWIS, ESSINGTON (1881-1961), Australian industrial leader 9 382-384

LEWIS, GILBERT NEWTON (1875-1946), American physical chemist 9 384-385

LEWIS, HARRY SINCLAIR (1885-1951), American novelist 9 385-387

LEWIS, JERRY (born 1926), American comedian 30 261-264

LEWIS, JERRY LEE (born 1935), American musician 35 235-237

LEWIS, JOHN LLEWELLYN (1880-1969), American labor leader 9 387-388

LEWIS, JOHN ROBERT (born 1940), United States civil rights activist and representative from Georgia 9 388-390

LEWIS, MATTHEW GREGORY (1775-1818), English novelist and playwright 9 390-391

LEWIS, MERIWETHER (1774-1809), American explorer and army officer 9 391-392

LEWIS, OSCAR (1914-1970), American anthropologist 9 392-393

LEWIS, REGINALD FRANCIS (1942-1993), African American businessman, attorney, and philanthropist 25 261-263

Lewis, Sinclair
    see Lewis, Harry Sinclair

LEWIS, WILLIAM ARTHUR (1915-1991), St. Lucian economist 27 240-242

LEWIS, WYNDHAM (Percy Wyndham Lewis; 1882-1957), Canadian-born British author and artist 28 217-219

LEWITT, SOL (1928-2007), American Minimalist and Conceptualist artist 9 393-395

Lexicography
    English
          Murray, James 38 256-258

Ley, Willie, (1907-1969), German-American science writer
          Bonestell, Chesley 38 32-34

LEYSTER, JUDITH (1609-1660), Dutch artist 30 264-266

Li Erh
    see Lao Tzu

Li Fei-kan
    see Pa Chin

LI HUNG-CHANG (1823-1901), Chinese soldier, statesman, and industrialist 9 407-409

Li Ma-t'ou
    see Ricci, Matteo

LI PENG (born 1928), premier of the People's Republic of China 9 433-435

LI PO (701-762), Chinese poet 9 437-439

Li Shih-min
    see Tai-tsung, T'ang

LI QINGZHAO (1084-1150), Chinese poet 25 263-265

LI SSU (c. 280-208 BCE), Chinese statesman 9 442-443

LI TA-CHAO (1889-1927), Chinese Communist revolutionist 9 447

LI TZU-CH'ENG (c. 1606-1645), Chinese bandit and rebel leader 9 452

LIANG CH'I-CH'AO (1873-1929), Chinese intellectual and political reformer 9 395-396

LIANG WU-TI (464-549), Chinese emperor of Southern dynasties 9 396-397

LIAQUAT ALI KHAN (1896-1951), Pakistani statesman 9 397

LIBBY, LEONA MARSHALL (1919-1986), American nuclear scientist 26 231-233

LIBBY, WILLARD FRANK (1908-1980), American chemist 9 397-398

Liberation theology
          Arns, Paolo Evaristo 38 12-14

LICHTENSTEIN, ROY (1923-1997), American painter, sculptor, and printmaker 9 398-399

Liddy, G. Gordon, (born 1930)
          Hunt, E. Howard 38 154-157

LIE, TRYGVE HALVDAN (1896-1968), Norwegian statesman and UN secretary general 9 400-401

LIEBER, FRANCIS (c. 1798-1872), German American political scientist 9 401-402

Lieber, Stanley Martin
    see Lee, Stan

LIEBERMANN, MAX (1847-1935), German painter 9 402-403

LIEBIG, BARON JUSTUS VON (1803-1873), German chemist 9 403-404

Lift (aerodynamic force)
          Cayley, George 38 51-53

LIGACHEV, YEGOR KUZ'MICH (born 1920), member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1966-1990) 9 404-406

LIGETI, GYÖRGY (1923-2006), Austrian composer 9 406-407

LIGHTNER, CANDY (born 1946), American activist and founder of Mothers Against Drunk Driving 19 201-203

LILBURNE, JOHN (1615-1657), English political activist and pamphleteer 9 409-410

LILIENTHAL, DAVID ELI (1899-1981), American public administrator 9 410-411

LILIENTHAL, OTTO (1848-1896), Prussian design engineer 21 260-262

LILIUOKALANI, LYDIA KAMAKAEHA (1838-1917), queen of the Hawaiian Islands 9 411-412

LILLY, ELI (1885-1977), American businessman and philanthropist 25 265-267

Lima e Silva, Luiz Alves de
    see Caxias, Duque de

LIMBOURG BROTHERS (flourished c. 1399-1416), Netherlandish illuminators 9 412-413

LIMÓN, JOSÉ ARCADIA (1908-1972), Mexican American dancer and choreographer 23 227-229

LIN, MAYA YING (born 1959), American architect 9 413-415

LIN PIAO (1907-1971), Chinese Communist military and political leader 9 429-430

LIN TSE-HSÜ (1785-1850), Chinese official 9 431-432

LIN YUTANG (1895-1976), Chinese author, philosopher, and translator 25 267-269

LINACRE, THOMAS (c. 1460-1524), English physician 33 194-197

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM (1809-1865), American statesman, president 1861-1865 9 415-418

LINCOLN, BENJAMIN (1733-1810), American military officer 9 418-419

LIND, JAKOV (Heinz “Henry” Landwirth; 1927-2007), Austrian autobiographer, short-story writer, novelist, and playwright 9 419-420

LIND, JENNY (Johanna Maria Lind; 1820-1887), Swedish coloratura soprano 26 233-235

LINDBERGH, ANNE MORROW (1906-2001), American author and aviator 9 420-421

LINDBERGH, CHARLES AUGUSTUS (1902-1974), American aviator 9 421-423

LINDGREN, ASTRID (Astrid Anna Emilia Ericcson; 1907-2002), Swedish author and editor 28 219-221

LINDSAY, JOHN VLIET (1921-2000), U.S. congressman (1959-1965) and mayor of New York (1966-1973) 9 423-424

LINDSAY, VACHEL (1879-1931), American folk poet 9 424-425

LINDSEY, BENJAMIN BARR (1869-1943), American jurist and reformer 9 425-426

Linguistics (science)
          Zhou Youguang 38 375-376

LINH, NGUYEN VAN (1915-1998), secretary-general of the Vietnamese Communist Party (1986-1991) 9 426-427

LINKLATER, ANDRO (1944-2013), Scottish journalist and historian 35 237-239

LINNAEUS, CARL (Carl von Linné; 1707-1778), Swedish naturalist 9 427-429

LINTON, RALPH (1893-1953), American anthropologist 9 431

LIPATTI, DINU (Constantin Lipatti; 1917-1950), Romanian musician and composer 28 222-223

LIPCHITZ, JACQUES (1891-1973), Lithuanian-born American sculptor 9 432-433

LIPMANN, FRITZ (1899-1986), German- American biochemist 9 435-437

LIPPI, FRA FILIPPO (c. 1406-1469), Italian painter 9 439

LIPPMANN, GABRIEL (1845-1921), French physicist and inventor 25 269-271

LIPPMANN, WALTER (1889-1974), American journalist 9 439-440

LIPPOLD, RICHARD (1915-2002), American Constructivist sculptor 9 440-442

Lisandrino
    see Magnasco, Alessandro

Lisbôa, Antônio Francisco
    see Aleijadinho, O

LISPECTOR, CLARICE (1920-1977), Brazilian writer 37 19-21

LIST, GEORG FRIEDRICH (1789-1846), German economist 9 443-444

LISTER, JOSEPH (1st Baron Lister of Lyme Regis; 1827-1912), English surgeon 9 444-445

LISTON, SONNY (Charles L. Liston; 1932-1970), American boxer 36 243-245

LISZT, FRANZ (1811-1886), Hungarian composer 9 445-447

Literary criticism
          Leavis, F.R. 38 200-201

Literature for children
    England
          Crane, Walter 38 63-65
    Germany
          Hoffmann, Heinrich 38 146-149
    United States
          McKissack, Patricia and Fredrick 38 234-236
          Pyle, Howard 38 299-301

Little, Malcolm
    see Malcolm X (film)

LITTLE, ROYAL (1896-1989), American textile tycoon 9 449-451

LITTLE MILTON (James Milton Campbell; 1934-2005), American blues musician 26 236-237

LITTLE RICHARD (Richard Penniman; born 1932), American rock 'n' roll musician 9 447-449

LITTLE WOLF (c. 1818-1904), Cheyenne chief 18 255-257

Littleton, Mark
    see Kennedy, John Pendleton

LITVAK, ANATOLE (1902-1974), Russian filmmaker 35 239-242

LITVINENKO, ALEXANDER (1962-2006), Russian security officer 38 214-216

LITVINOV, MAXIM MAXIMOVICH (1876-1951), Soviet diplomat 9 451-452

Liu Ch'e
    see Han Wu-ti

Liu Chi
    see Liu Pang

LIU HSIEH (c. 465-522), Chinese literary critic 9 452-453

Liu Hsiu
    see Kuang-wu-ti

LIU PANG (Han Kao-tsu or Liu Chi; 256 BCE-195 BCE), Chinese emperor 9 453

LIU SHAO-CH'I (1900-1974), Chinese Communist party leader 9 453-455

LIU TSUNG-YÜAN (773-819), Chinese poet and prose writer 9 455-456

LIU XIAOBO (born 1955), Chinese activist 33 197-199

Liuzzi, Mondino de
    see Luzzi, Mondino de'

LIUZZO, VIOLA (1925-1965), American civil rights activist 19 203-205

LIVERIGHT, HORACE B. (1886-1933), American publisher 23 229-231

LIVERMORE, MARY (1820-1905), American suffragette and reformer 29 247-249

LIVERPOOL, 2ND EARL OF (Robert Barks Jenkinson; 1770-1828), English statesman, prime minister 1812-1827 9 456-457

LIVIA (c. 58 BCE - 29 A.D.), Roman empress, wife of Augustus 9 457-460

LIVINGSTON, EDWARD (1764-1836), American jurist and statesman 9 460-461

LIVINGSTON, ROBERT (1654-1728), American colonial politician 9 461-462

LIVINGSTON, ROBERT R. (1746-1813), American jurist and diplomat 9 462-463

LIVINGSTONE, DAVID (1813-1873), Scottish missionary and explorer in Africa 9 463-465

LIVY (Titus Livius; c. 64 BCE-c. 12 A.D.), Roman historian 9 465-467

Lizardi, José Joaquín Fernández de
    see Fernández de Lizardi, José Joaquín

LLERAS CAMARGO, ALBERTO (1906-1990), Colombian statesman, twice president 9 467

LLEWELYN AP GRUFFYDD (died 1282), Prince of Wales 9 468

LLOYD, HENRY DEMAREST (1847-1903), American social reformer 9 468-469

LLOYD, HAROLD (1893-1971), American actor 20 226-229

LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID, (1st Earl of Dwyfor; 1863-1945), English statesman, prime minister 1916-1922 9 469-471

LLOYD-JONES, ESTHER MCDONALD (1901-1991), school personnel specialist who focused on development of the whole person 9 471-472

LLULL, RAMON (c. 1232-c. 1316), Catalan philosopher and missionary 38 216-218

LOBACHEVSKII, NIKOLAI IVANOVICH (1792-1856), Russian mathematician 9 472-474

LOBDELL, LUCY ANN (1829-1912), American vagabond 36 245-247

LOBENGULA (died c. 1894), South African Ndebele king 9 474-475

LOBO, REBECCA ROSE (born 1973), American basketball player 31 209-210

LOCHNER, STEPHAN (c. 1410-1451), German painter 9 475

LOCKE, ALAIN (1886-1954), African American educator, editor, and author 9 475-478

LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704), English philosopher and political theorist 9 478-480

LOCKE, PATRICIA (1928-2001), American educator 31 211

LOCKWOOD, BELVA (1830-1917), American lawyer, suffragist, and reformer 19 205-207

LODGE, DAVID (born 1935), English novelist 9 480-482

LODGE, HENRY CABOT (1850-1924), American political leader 9 482-483

LODGE, HENRY CABOT, JR. (1902-1985), American congressman, senator, ambassador, and presidential adviser 9 483-485

Lodovico il Moro
    see Sforza, Lodovico

LOEB, JACQUES (Isaak Loeb; 1859-1924), German-American biophysiologist 22 299-301

LOESSER, FRANK (Francis Henry Loesser; 1910-1969), American lyricist 18 257-259

LOEW, MARCUS (1870-1927), founder of a theater chain and Metro-Goldwyn- Mayer 9 485-486

LOEWI, OTTO (1873-1961), German- American pharmacologist and physiologist 9 486-487

LOEWY, RAYMOND (1893-1986), Frenchborn industrial designer 35 242-244

LOFTING, HUGH (1886-1947), British author of children's books 19 207-209

LOGAN, GEORGE (1753-1821), American politician and diplomat 23 231-234

LOGAN, JAMES (1674-1751), American colonial statesman and jurist 9 487-488

LOGAN, MYRA ADELE (1908-1977), American physician and surgeon 30 266-268

LOGAN, SIR WILLIAM EDMOND (1798-1875), Canadian geologist 9 488-489

Loges, François des
    see Villon, François

LOISY, ALFRED FIRMIN (1857-1940), French theologian and biblical historian 9 489-490

LOMAX, ALAN (1915-2002), American folklorist, author and musician 27 242-244

LOMAX, ALMENA (1915-2011), American journalist and activist 32 216-218

LOMAX, JOHN AVERY (1867-1948), American musicologist 28 224-225

LOMBARD, CAROLE (1909-1942), American actress 29 249-251

LOMBARD, PETER (c. 1095-1160), Italian bishop and theologian 9 490-491

LOMBARDI, VINCE (1913-1970), American football coach 9 491-492

LOMBARDO, GUY (Gaetano Alberto Lombardo; 1902-1977), Canadian band leader 23 234-236

LOMBROSO, CESARE (1835-1909), Italian criminologist 9 493

LOMONOSOV, MIKHAIL VASILEVICH (1711-1765), Russian chemist and physicist 9 494

LON NOL (1913-1985), Cambodian general and politician 29 251-253

LONDON, JACK (1876-1916), American author 9 494-495

LONDONDERRY, ANNIE (1870-1947), American cyclist 29 253-256

Londonderry, 2nd Marquess of
    see Castlereagh, Viscount

LONG, CRAWFORD WILLIAMSON (1815-1878), American physician 9 495-496

LONG, HUEY PIERCE (1893-1935), American politician 9 496-497

LONG, IRENE D. (born 1951), African American aerospace medicine physician 9 497-498

Long Parliament (England; 1640-60)
          Sidney, Algernon 38 322-324

LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH (1807-1882), American poet 9 499-500

LONGINUS (flourished 1st or 3rd century), Latin author and rhetorician 9 500-501

LONGSTREET, JAMES (1821-1904), American army officer 22 301-305

LONGUS (flourished 3rd century), Greek author 20 229-230

LONNROT, ELIAS (1802-1884), Finnish author and physician 25 271-273

LONSDALE, KATHLEEN (born Kathleen Yardley; 1903-1971), Irish crystallographer 9 501-502

LOOS, ADOLF (1870-1933), Viennese architect 9 502-503

LOOS, ANITA (1893-1981), American actress and writer 21 262-265

LOPE FÉLIX DE VEGA CARPIO (1562-1635), Spanish dramatist 9 503-506

LÓPEZ, CARLOS ANTONIO (1792-1862), Paraguayan president-dictator 1844-1862 9 506-507

LÓPEZ, FRANCISCO SOLANO (1826-1870), Paraguayan president-dictator 9 507-508

López, Israel
    see Cachao

LOPEZ, NANCY (born 1957), American golfer 30 268-270

LÓPEZ, NARCISO (1798-1851), Venezuelan military leader 9 508

LOPEZ ARELLANO, OSWALDO (1921-2010), Honduran military officer and president 20 230-231

LÓPEZ DE AYALA, PEDRO (1332-1407), Spanish statesman, historian, and poet 9 508-509

LÓPEZ MATEOS, ADOLFO (1910-1970), president of Mexico (1958-1964) 9 509-510

LÓPEZ PORTILLO, JOSÉ (1920-2004), president of Mexico (1976-1982) 9 510-511

LOPOKOVA, LYDIA (1891-1981), Russian ballerina 31 212-214

LORCA, FEDERICO GARCÍA (1898-1936), Spanish poet and playwright 9 511-513

LORD, BETTE BAO (born 1938), Chinese American writer and activist 32 218-220

Lord Haw Haw
    see Joyce, William

LORDE, AUDRE (1934-1992), African American poet 9 513-515

LOREN, SOPHIA (Sofia Villani Scicolene; born 1936), Italian actress and author 18 259-261

LORENTZ, HENDRIK ANTOON (1853-1928), Dutch physicist 9 515-516

LORENZ, KONRAD Z. (1903-1989), animal psychologist 9 516-517

LORENZANA, ANTONIO (1722-1804), Spanish cardinal 32 220-222

LORENZETTI, PIERRE AND AMBROGIO (flourished 14th century), Italian painters 9 517-518

LORENZINI, CARLO (1826-1890), Italian author 30 118-120

Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim (baseball team)
          Autry, Gene 38 14-16
          Connors, Chuck 38 59-61

Lost World, The (novel and film)
          Fawcett, Percy 38 92-95

Lothar of Segni
    see Innocent III

LOTI, PIERRE (1850-1923), French novelist 9 519-520

LOTT, TRENT (Chester Trent Lott; born 1941), American congressman 18 262-264

LOTTO, LORENZO (c. 1480-1556), Italian painter 9 520-521

LOTZE, RUDOLF HERMANN (1817-1881), German idealist philosopher 9 521-522

LOUIS I (778-840), Holy Roman emperor and king of France and Germany 814-840 9 522-523

Louis II, (1845-1886)
    see Ludwig II of Bavaria

LOUIS VI (1081-1137), king of France 1108-1137 9 523-524

LOUIS VII (c. 1120-1180), king of France 1137-1180 9 524-525

LOUIS IX (1214-1270), king of France 1226-1270 9 525-526

LOUIS XI (1423-1483), king of France 1461-1483 9 526-528

LOUIS XII (1462-1515), king of France 1498-1515 9 528-529

LOUIS XIII (1601-1643), king of France 1610-1643 9 529-531

LOUIS XIV (1638-1715), king of France 1643-1715 9 531-533

LOUIS XV (1710-1774), king of France 1715-1774 9 533-534

LOUIS XVI (1754-1793), king of France 1774-1792 9 534-535

LOUIS XVIII (1755-1824), king of France 1814-1824 9 535-536

LOUIS, JOE (Joe Louis Barrow; 1914-1981), American boxer 9 537-538

LOUIS, MORRIS (Bernstein; 1912-1962), American painter 9 538-539

LOUIS, PIERRE CHARLES ALEXANDRE (1787-1872), French physician 9 540

Louis, Saint
    see Louis IX (king of France)

Louis d'Orléans
    see Louis XII (king of France)

Louis le Dieudonné
    see Louis XIV (king of France)

Louis Napoleon
    see Napoleon III, Emperor of the French

LOUIS PHILIPPE (1773-1850), king of the French 1830-1848 9 536-537

Louis the Great
    see Louis XIV (king of France)

Louis the Pious
    see Louis I (Holy Roman emperor)

Love (music group)
          Lee, Arthur 38 202-204

LOVE, NAT (1854-1921), African American champion cowboy 10 1-2

LOVE, SUSAN M. (born 1948), American surgeon and medical researcher 10 2-3

LOVECRAFT, H. P. (1890-1937), American author 10 3-6

LOVEJOY, ARTHUR ONCKEN (1873-1962), American philosopher 10 6

LOVEJOY, ELIJAH PARISH (1802-1837), American newspaper editor and abolitionist 10 6-7

LOVELACE, ADA BYRON (Countess of Lovelace, Augusta Ada King Byron; 1815-1852), English mathematician and author 18 264-266

LOVELACE, RICHARD (c. 1618-c. 1657), English Cavalier poet 10 7-8

LOVELL, SIR ALFRED CHARLES BERNARD (1913-2012), English astronomer 10 8-9

LOVING, MILDRED (1939-2008), American plaintiff, Loving v. Virginia 36 247-249
          Loving, Richard 38 218-220

LOVING, RICHARD (1933-1975), American plaintiff, Loving v. Virginia 38 218-220

Loving v. Virginia (legal case, 1967)
          Loving, Richard 38 218-220

LOW, JULIETTE GORDON (born Juliette Magill Kinzie Gordon; 1860-1927), American reformer and founder of the Girl Scouts 10 10-11

LOW, SETH (1850-1916), American politician and college president 10 11-12

LOWE, THADDEUS S.C. (1832-1913), American aeronaut 31 215-217

LOWELL, ABBOTT LAWRENCE (1856-1943), American educator and political scientist 10 12-13

LOWELL, AMY (1874-1925), American poet, critic, and biographer 10 13

LOWELL, FRANCIS CABOT (1775-1817), American merchant and manufacturer 10 13-14

LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819-1891), American poet and diplomat 10 14-15

LOWELL, JOSEPHINE SHAW (1843-1905), American social reformer and philanthropist 10 15-16

LOWELL, ROBERT TRAIL SPENCE, JR. (1917-1977), American poet 10 16-17

LOWIE, ROBERT HARRY (1883-1957), Austrian-born American anthropologist 10 18

LOWRY, MALCOLM (1909-1957), English author 19 209-211

LOZIER, CLEMENCE SOPHIA HARNED (1813-1888), American suffragist, reformer, and physician 25 273-275

LU CHI (261-303), Chinese poet and critic 10 24

LU CHIU-YUAN (Lu Hsiang-shan; 1139-1193), Chinese philosopher 10 24-25

LU HSÜN (pen name of Chou Shu-jen; 1881-1936), Chinese author and social critic 10 35-37

Luang Pradit Manutham
    see Pridi Phanomyong

LUBETKIN, ZIVIA (1914-1976), Polish resistance fighter 34 242-244

LUBITSCH, ERNST (1892-1947), German- American film director 10 18-19

LUCARIS, CYRIL (1572-1637), Greek Orthodox patriarch and theologian 10 20

LUCAS, GEORGE (born 1944), American filmmaker 19 211-213

LUCAS VAN LEYDEN (1494-1533), Dutch engraver and painter 10 20-21

LUCE, CLARE BOOTHE (1903-1987), playwright and U.S. congresswoman 10 21-23

LUCE, HENRY ROBINSON (1898-1967), American magazine editor and publisher 10 23-24

LUCIAN (c. 120-c. 200), Greek satirist 10 25-26

LUCIANO, LUCKY (Charles Luciano, Salvatore Lucania; 1897-1962), Italian American mobster 19 214-215

LUCID, SHANNON (born 1943), American astronaut 19 215-217

LUCRETIUS (Titus Lucretius Carus; c. 94-c. 55 BCE), Latin poet and philosopher 10 26-27

LUDENDORFF, ERICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1865-1937), German general 10 27-28

LUDINGTON, SYBIL (1761-1839), American revolutionary 36 249-251

LUDLUM, ROBERT (a.k.a. Jonathan Ryder and Michael Shepherd; 1927-2001), American suspense novelist 10 28-29

LUDWIG I OF BAVARIA (1786-1868), king of Bavaria 1825-1848 34 244-246

LUDWIG II OF BAVARIA (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; 1845-1886), king of Bavaria 1864-1886 35 244-246

LUDWIG, DANIEL KEITH (1897-1992), American shipping magnate 10 29-31

LUDWIG, KARL FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1816-1895), German physiologist 10 31

LUGARD, FREDERICK JOHN DEALTRY (1st Baron Lugard; 1858-1945), British soldier and colonial administrator in Africa 10 31-32

LUGOSI, BELA (1882-1956), Hungarian- American actor 35 246-249

Lugovoy, Andrei, (born 1966), Russian politician
          Litvinenko, Alexander 38 214-216

LUHAN, MABEL DODGE (1879-1962), American writer, salon hostess, and patron of artists, writers, and political radicals 10 32-34

LUHMANN, NIKLAS (1927-1998), German sociologist who developed a general sociological systems theory 10 34-35

LUKÁCS, GYORGY (1885-1971), Hungarian literary critic and philosopher 10 37-38

Lukar, Cyril
    see Lucaris, Cyril

LUKASIEWICZ, IGNACY (1822-1882), Polish pharmacist and inventor of the kerosene lamp 28 225-227

LUKE, ST. (flourished A.D. 50), Evangelist and biblical author 10 38

LUKENS, REBECCA (née Rebecca Webb Pennock; 1794-1854), American industrialist 25 275-277

LUKS, GEORGE BENJAMIN (1867-1933), American painter 10 38-39

LULA DA SILVA, LUIZ INÁCIO (Lula; born 1945), president of Brazil 27 244-247

Lull, Raymond
    see Llull, Ramon

LULLY, JEAN BAPTISTE (1632-1687), Italian-born French composer 10 40-41

LUMET, SIDNEY (1924-2011), American filmmaker and television director 22 305-307

LUMIÈRE BROTHERS (Auguste Marie Louis, 1862-1954, and Louis Jean, 1864-1948), French inventors 10 41-43

LUMMIS, CHARLES FLETCHER (1859-1928), American adventurer and journalist 33 199-201

LUMUMBA, PATRICE EMERY (1925-1961), Congolese statesman 10 43-45

LUNDY, BENJAMIN (1789-1839), American journalist 10 45-46

LUNS, JOSEPH (1911-2002), West European political leader 10 46-47

LUPER, CLARA (1923-2011), American equal rights activist 33 201-203

LURIA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON ASHKENAZI (1534-1572), Jewish mystic 10 47-48

LUTHER, MARTIN (1483-1546), German religious reformer 10 48-51

LUTHULI, ALBERT JOHN (1898-1967), South African statesman 10 51-52

LUTOSLAWSKI, WITOLD (1913-1994), Polish composer 10 52-53

LUTYENS, EDWIN LANDSEER (1869-1944), English architect 10 54-55
          Jekyll, Gertrude 38 163-165

LUWUM, JANANI (1922-1977), Ugandan religious leader and minister 36 251-253

LUXEMBURG, ROSA (1870-1919), Polish revolutionary 10 55-56

LUZ, ARTURO ROGERIO (born 1926), Philippine painter and sculptor 10 56-57

LUZHKOV, YURI MIKHAYLOVICH (born 1936), mayor of Moscow 18 266-268

LUZZATO, MOSES HAYYIM (1707-1747), Jewish mystic and poet 10 57-58

LUZZI, MONDINO DE' (c. 1265-1326), Italian anatomist 10 58

LWOFF, ANDRÉ (1902-1994), French microbiologist and geneticist 10 58-59

LY, ABDOULAYE (born 1919), Senegalese politician and historian 10 60

LYAUTEY, LOUIS HUBERT GONZALVE (1854-1934), French marshal and colonial administrator 10 60-61

LYDGATE, JOHN (c. 1370-1449/50), English poet 10 61-62

LYDIARD, ARTHUR (1917-2004), New Zealander running coach 36 253-256

LYELL, SIR CHARLES (1797-1875), Scottish geologist 10 62-63

Lymphatic system (anatomy)
          Hodgkin, Thomas 38 144-146

LYND, HELEN MERRELL (1896-1982), American sociologist and educator 10 63-64

LYND, ROBERT STAUGHTON (1892-1970), American sociologist 10 64-65

LYND, STAUGHTON (born 1929), historian and peace militant 10 65-66

LYNDSAY, SIR DAVID (c. 1485-1555), Scottish poet and courtier 10 66-67

LYNN, LORETTA (born 1932), American country singer-songwriter 38 221-223

LYON, MARY (1797-1849), American educator, religious leader, and women's rights advocate 10 67-69

LYONS, ENID MURIEL (1897-1981), Australian politician 29 258-260

LYONS, JOSEPH ALOYSIUS (1879-1939), Australian statesman, prime minister 1932-39 10 69-70

LYOTARD, JEAN-FRANÇOIS (1924-1998), French philosopher and cultural theorist 36 256-257

LYSANDER (died 395 BCE), Spartan military commander and statesman 10 70

LYSENKO, TROFIM DENISOVICH (1898-1976), Soviet agronomist and geneticist 10 71
          Belyaev, Dmitry K. 38 21-23

Lytton of Knebworth, 1st Baron
    see Bulwer-Lytton, Edward M

MA, YO-YO (born 1955), American cellist 20 232-234

MAAS, PETER (1929-2001), American author 27 248-251

MAASSAB, HUNEIN (1926-2014), American scientist 35 250-252

MAATHAI, WANGARI MUTA (1940-2011), Kenyan environmental activist 18 269-271

MABILLON, JEAN (1632-1707), French monk and historian 10 72

MABINI, APOLINARIO (1864-1903), Filipino political philosopher 10 72-73

MABLEY, MOMS (1897-1975), American comedian 35 252-255

Mabovitch, Golda
    see Meir, Golda

MABUCHI, KAMO (1697-1769), Japanese writer and scholar 10 73-74

MACAPAGAL, DIOSDADO P. (1910-1997), Filipino statesman 10 74-76

MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, GLORIA (Gloria Arroyo; born 1947), presidnet of the Philippine islands 25 278-280

MACARTHUR, DOUGLAS (1880-1964), American general 10 76-78

MACARTHUR, ELLEN (born 1976), English yachtswoman 33 204-206

MACARTHUR, JOHN (c. 1767-1834), Australian merchant, sheep breeder, and politician 10 78

MACAULAY, CATHARINE (Catherine Sawbridge Macaulay Graham; 1731-1791), British author and feminist 25 280-282

MACAULAY, HERBERT (1864-1945), Nigerian politician 10 78-79

MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON (1st Baron Macaulay of Rothley; 1800-1859), English essayist, historian, and politician 10 79-80

MACBETH (died 1057), king of Scotland 1040-1057 10 81

MACBRIDE, JOHN (1865-1916), Irish patriot 31 218-219

MACBRIDE, SEAN (1904-1988), Irish statesman 19 218-220

MACCREADY, PAUL (1925-2007), American aeronautical engineer 20 234-237

MACDONALD, DWIGHT (1906-1982), American editor, journalist, essayist, and critic 10 81-83

MACDONALD, ELEANOR JOSEPHINE (1906-2007), American epidemiologist 10 83-84

MACDONALD, GEORGE (1824-1905), Scottish author and Christian visionary 38 224-227

MACDONALD, JAMES RAMSAY (1866-1937), British politician 10 84-85

MACDONALD, SIR JOHN ALEXANDER (1815-1891), Canadian statesman 10 85-87

MACDOWELL, EDWARD ALEXANDER (1861-1908), American pianist and composer 10 87-88

MACEO, ANTONIO (1845-1896), Cuban general and patriot 10 88-90

MACGILL, ELSIE (Elizabeth Muriel Gregory MacGill; 1905-1980), Canadian aeronautical engineer 37 222-224

MACH, ERNST (1838-1916), Austrian physicist 10 90-91

MACHADO, ANTONIO (1875-1939), Spanish poet 35 255-256

MACHADO, CHINA (1929-2016), Chinese fashion model 38 227-229

MACHADO DE ASSIS, JOAQUIM MARIA (1839-1908), Brazilian novelist 10 91-92

MACHADO Y MORALES, GERARDO (1871-1939), Cuban general and president 10 92-93

MACHAUT, GUILLAUMEDE (c. 1300-1377), French composer and poet 10 93-94

MACHEL, GRAÇA (born 1945), Mozambican activist and government official 37 224-226

MACHEL, SAMORA MOISES (1933-1986), socialist revolutionary and first president of Mozambique 10 94-96

MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLÒ (1469-1527), Italian author and statesman 10 97-99

Machine gun
    see Weapons and explosives

MACÍAS NGUEMA, FRANCISCO (1924-1979), Equatorial Guinean statesman 33 206-208

MACINTOSH, CHARLES (1766-1843), Scottish chemist and inventor 38 229-230

MACINTYRE, ALASDAIR CHALMERS (born 1929), Scottish-born philosopher and ethicist 10 99-100

MACIVER, ROBERT MORRISON (1882-1970), Scottish-American sociologist, political philosopher, and educator 10 100-101

MACK, CONNIE (Cornelius Alexander McGillicuddy; 1862-1956), American baseball player and manager 19 220-222

MACKAY, JOHN WILLIAM (1831-1902), American miner and business leader 10 101-102

MACKE, AUGUST (1887-1914), Expressionist painter 10 102-103

MACKENZIE, ADA (1891-1973), Canadian golfer 24 232-234

MACKENZIE, SIR ALEXANDER (c. 1764-1820), Scottish explorer, fur trader, and businessman 10 103-104

MACKENZIE, ALEXANDER (1822-1892), Scottish-born Canadian statesman, prime minister 1873-1878 10 104

MACKENZIE, WILLIAM LYON (1795-1861), Scottish-born Canadian journalist, politician, and rebel 10 104-106

Mackenzie King, William Lyon
    see King, William Lyon Mackenzie

MACKERRAS, ALAN CHARLES (Sir Charles Mackerrras; 1925-2010), Australian conductor 23 237-239

MACKILLOP, MARY (1842-1909), first Australian candidate for sainthood in the Roman Catholic Church and foundress of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart 10 106-107

MACKINNON, CATHARINE (born 1946), American attorney, professor, and author 36 258-260

MACKINTOSH, CHARLES RENNIE (1868-1928), Scottish artist, architect, and interior/furniture/textile designer 10 107-108

MACLEAN, DONALD (1913-1983), British diplomat and spy 34 247-249

MACLEAN, GEORGE (1801-1847), Scottish soldier and agent of British expansion 10 108-109

MACLEISH, ARCHIBALD (1892-1982), American poet, playwright, and public official 10 109-110

MACLENNAN, HUGH (1907-1990), Canadian novelist, essayist, and academic 10 110-111

MACLEOD, JOHN JAMES RICKARD (1876-1935), Scottish physiologist 24 234-237

MACMILLAN, DONALD BAXTER (1874-1970), American explorer and scientist 10 111-112

MACMILLAN, HAROLD (1894-1986), British statesman 10 112-113

MACNEICE, LOUIS (1907-1964), British poet 10 113-114

MACON, NATHANIEL (1758-1837), American statesman 10 114-115

MACONCHY, ELIZABETH (Betty Maconchy; 1907-1994), British composer 27 251-253

MACPHAIL, AGNES CAMPBELL (1890-1954), Canadian activist and politician 24 237-239

MACQUARIE, LACHLAN (1762-1824), British officer, governor of New South Wales 1810-1822 10 115-116

MACQUARRIE, JOHN (1919-2007), Anglican theologian 10 116-117

Macy, Anne Sullivan
    see Sullivan, Anne Mansfield

Macy, Mrs. John Albert
    see Sullivan, Anne Mansfield, (Mrs. John Albert Macy; 1887-1936)

MACY, ROWLAND H. (1822-1877), American retailer and businessman 32 223-225

MADAME DE POMPADOUR (Jeanne- Antoinette Poisson Pompasourr; 1721-1764), French mistress 28 228-230

Madeline series (children's books)
          Bemelmans, Ludwig 38 23-26

MADERNO, CARLO (1556-1629), Italian architect 10 117-118

MADERO, FRANCISCO INDALECIO (1873-1913), Mexican politician, president 1911-13 10 118-119

MADHVA (Vasudeva; Madhwa; Anande Tirtha; Purna Prajna; c.1199-c.1276), Indian theologian and philosopher 22 308-309

MADISON, DOLLY (wife of James Madison, born Dorothea Payne; 1768-1849), American first lady 10 119-121

MADISON, JAMES (1751-1836), American statesman, president 1809-1817 10 121-123

MADONNA (Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone, born 1958), American singer and actress 10 123-125

MAEKAWA, KUNIO (1905-1986), Japanese architect 23 239-242

Maelwael, Pol, Herman, and Jehanequin
    see Limbourg Brothers

MAETERLINCK, COUNT MAURICE (1863-1949), Belgian poet, dramatist, and essayist 10 125-126

Mafalda (comic strip)
          Quino 38 302-304

MAFFEI, CLARA (1814-1886), Italian intellectual 31 220-221

MAGELLAN, FERDINAND (1480-1521), Portuguese explorer 10 126-127

MAGENDIE, FRANCOIS (1783-1855), French physiologist 25 282-285

Magicians
          Nivelli, Herbert 38 273-275

MAGIE, ELIZABETH (1866-1948), American game designer 37 226-229

MAGLIOZZI, TOM (1937-2014), American radio personality 37 229-231

MAGNANI, ANNA (1908-1973), Italian actress 26 238-241

MAGNASCO, ALESSANDRO (1667-1749), Italian painter 10 127-128

Magnus, Cnaeus Pompeius
    see Pompey

MAGRITTE, RENÉ (1890-1967), Surrealist painter 10 128-130

MAGSAYSAY, RAMON (1907-1957), Philippine statesman, president 1953-1957 10 130-131

Maguire, Mary Gunning
    see Colum, Mary

MAHAL, HAZRAT (Iftikarun-nisa; c. 1820-1879), Indian revolutionary 18 271-273

MAHAN, ALFRED THAYER (1840-1914), American naval historian and strategist 10 131-132

MAHARISHI MAHESH YOGI (c. 1911-2008), Indian guru and founder of the Transcendental Meditation movement 10 132-133

MAHATHIR MOHAMAD (born 1925), prime minister of Malaysia 10 134-135

MAHDI, THE (Mohammed Ahmed; c. 1844-1885), Islamic reformer and Sudanese military leader 10 137-138

MAHENDRA, KING (Bir Bikram Shah Dev; 1920-1972), ninth Shah dynasty ruler of Nepal (1955-1972) 10 138-139

MAHERERO, SAMUEL (c. 1854-1923), Supreme Chief of the Herero naion in southwest Africa 10 139-142

MAHFUZ, NAJIB (1912-2006), Egyptian novelist 10 142-144

MAHLER, GUSTAV (1860-1911), Bohemian-born composer and conductor 10 144-145

MAHMUD II (1785-1839), Ottoman sultan 1808-1839 10 145-147

MAHMUD OF GHAZNI (971-1030), Ghaznavid sultan in Afghanistan 10 147

MAHONE, WILLIAM (1826-1895), American politician and Confederate general 10 147-148

MAHONEY, MARY ELIZA (1845-1926), American nurse 31 222-223

Mail-order merchandising
          Hubbard, Elbert 38 151-154

MAILER, NORMAN KINGSLEY (1923-2007), American author, producer, and director 10 148-150

MAILLOL, ARISTIDE (1861-1944), French sculptor 10 150-151

MAIMONIDES (1135-1204), Jewish philosopher 10 151-152

MAINE, SIR HENRY JAMES SUMNER (1822-1888), English legal historian and historical anthropologist 10 152

MAISONEUVE, SIEUR DE (Paul de Chomedey; 1612-1676), French explorer and colonizer in Canada 10 153

MAISTRE, JOSEPH DE (1753-1821), French political philosopher 10 153-154

MAITLAND, FREDERIC WILLIAM (1850-1906), English historian, lawyer, and legal scholar 10 154-155

MAJOR, JOHN (born 1943), British prime minister 10 155-157

MAKARIOS III (Michael Christodoulou Mouskos; 1913-1977), archbishop and ethnarch of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus and first president of the Republic of Cyprus (1959-1977) 10 157-158

MAKAVEJEV, DUSAN (born 1932), Yugoslav filmmaker 26 241-243

MAKEBA, MIRIAM (Zensi Miriam Makeba; 1932-2008), South African singer and activist 22 309-312

MAKEMIE, FRANCIS (1658-1708), Irishborn Presbyterian missionary 10 158-159

Makhpiyaluta
    see Red Cloud

MAKI, FUMIHIKO (born 1928), Japanese architect 10 159-161

MAKIBI, KIBI-NO (693-775), Japanese courtier and statesman 10 161

MAKINO, SHOZO (1878-1929), Japanese director 32 225-227

MAKO (Makoto Iwamatsu; 1933-2006), Japanese-American actor and director 27 253-255

MÄKONNEN ENDALKAČÄW (1892-1963), Ethiopian writer and official 10 161-162

Malahayati
    see Keumalahayati

MALA'IKA, NAZIK AL- (Nazek Sadiq al- Malaika; 1923-2007), Iraqi poet, literary critic, and proponent of women's rights 28 230-232

MALAMUD, BERNARD (1914-1986), American novelist and short-story writer 10 162-163

MALAN, DANIEL FRANCOIS (1874-1959), South African pastor, journalist, and prime minister 1948-1954 10 163-164

MALAYEV, ILYAS (1936-2008), Uzbek musician, singer, comedian, and poet 32 227-229

MALCOLM III (died 1093), king of Scotland 1058-1093 10 164-165

MALCOLM X (1925-1965), African American civil rights leader 10 165-166

MALEBRANCHE, NICOLAS (1638-1715), French philosopher and theologian 10 166-167

MALENKOV, GEORGY MAKSIMILIANOVICH (1902-1988), head of the Soviet government and leader of its Communist Party (1953) 10 168

MALEVICH, KASIMIR (1878-1935), Russian painter 10 168-169

MALHERBE, FRANÇOIS DE (1555-1628), French poet 10 169-170

MALINCHE, LA (1505-1551), Mexican translator 32 194-196

MALINOWSKI, KASPAR BRONISLAW (1884-1942), Austrian-born British social anthropologist 10 170-171

MALIPIERO, GIAN FRANCESCO (1882-1973), Italian composer 10 171

MALKAM KHAN, MIRZA (1831-1908), Persian diplomat 10 172

MALLARMÉ, STÉPHANE (1842-1898), French poet 10 172-173

MALLE, LOUIS (1932-1995), French film director and producer 18 273-275

MALLON, MARY (Typhoid Mary; 1869-1938), Irish woman who unwittingly infected many with typhoid fever 21 266-268

MALLORY, GEORGE (1886-1924), English mountain climber 21 268-271

MALLOY, JUDY (born 1942), American writer 37 231-233

MALONE, ANNIE TURNBO (Annie Minerva Turnbo Malone; 1869-1957), African American entrepreneur and philanthropist 23 242-243

MALONE, DUMAS (1892-1986), American historian and editor 10 174-175

MALORY, SIR THOMAS (flourished 15th century), English author 10 175-176

MALPIGHI, MARCELLO (1628-1694), Italian anatomist 10 176-178

MALRAUX, ANDRÉ (1901-1976), French novelist, essayist, and politician 10 178-180

MALTHUS, THOMAS ROBERT (1766-1834), English economist 10 180-181

MAMET, DAVID ALAN (born 1947), American author 10 181-182

MAMUN, ABDALLAH AL- (786-833), Abbasid caliph 10 183

Manassa Mauler
    see Dempsey, Jack

MANASSEH BEN ISRAEL (1604-1657), Dutch rabbi and theologian 10 183-184

MANCINI, HENRY (Enrico Mancini; 1924-1994), American composer, pianist, and film music scorer 18 275-276

MANCO CAPAC (c. 1500-1545), Inca emperor 10 184-185

Mandate system
    see League of Nations–mandates

MANDELA, NELSON ROLIHLAHLA (1918-2014), South African leader 10 185-186 Kathrada, Ahmed 38 175-177

MANDELA, WINNIE (Nomzamo Winifred Madikizela; born 1936), South African anti-apartheid leader 10 187-189

MANDELBROT, BENOIT B. (1924-2010), Polish-born French-American mathematician who invented fractals 10 189-191

MANDELSTAM, OSIP EMILYEVICH (1891-1938), Russian poet 10 191

MANDEVILLE, BERNARD (c. 1670-1733), English satirist and moral philosopher 10 192

MANDEVILLE, SIR JOHN (flourished 14th century), pen name of English author 10 192-193

MANET, ÉDOUARD (1832-1883), French painter 10 193-194

Manga (Japanese literature)
          Mizuki, Shigeru 38 241-243

MANGAS COLORADAS (c. 1790-1863), Apache military leader 10 194-196

MANI (216-276/277), Persian prophet 10 196-197

MANIN, DANIELE (1804-1857), Venetian patriot 10 197-198

MANKIEWICZ, JOSEPH L. (1909-1993), American film director 29 261-263

MANKILLER, WILMA (1945-2010), Native American activist and Cherokee chief 10 198-199

MANLEY, EFFA (1900-1981), American sports team owner and civil rights activist 32 229-231

MANLEY, MICHAEL NORMAN (1924-1997), Jamaican prime minister (1972-1980) 10 200-201

MANLEY, NORMAN (Norman Washington Manley; 1893-1969), Jamaican politician 37 233-235

MANN, HEINRICH (1871-1950), German novelist, essayist, and social critic 10 201-202

MANN, HORACE (1796-1859), American educational reformer and humanitarian 10 202-204
          Walpole, Horace 38 354-356

MANN, THOMAS (1875-1955), German novelist and essayist 10 204-207

MANNERHEIM, BARON CARL GUSTAV EMIL VON (1867-1951), Finnish military leader and statesman, president 1944-46 10 207-208

MANNHEIM, KARL (1893-1947), Hungarian-born sociologist and educator 10 208-209

MANNING, HENRY EDWARD (1808-1892), English cardinal 10 209-210

MANNIX, DANIEL (1864-1963), Irish-born Australian archbishop 10 210

Manoel
    see Manuel

MANRIQUE, JORGE (c. 1440-1478), Spanish poet and soldier 10 210-211

MANSART, FRANÇOIS (1598-1666), French architect 10 211

MANSART, JULES HARDOUIN (1646-1708), French architect 10 212

MANSFIELD, KATHERINE (born Kathleen Mansfield Beauchamp; 1888-1923), New Zealander short-story writer and poet 10 213-214

MANSFIELD, PETER (born 1933), British physicist 34 249-252

Mansfield Park (novel)
          Repton, Humphry 38 305-307

MANSUR, ABU JAFAR IBN MUHAMMAD AL (712-775), Abbasid caliph 10 214-215

Mansur, Abu Yusuf Yakub al
    see Yakub Al-Mansur, Abu Yusuf

MANTEGAZZA, PAOLO (1831-1910), Italian anthropologist, pathologist, and author 38 230-233

MANTEGNA, ANDREA (c. 1430-1506), Italian painter and engraver 10 215-216

MANTEO (flourished 1580), Algonquian chieftain 32 231-232

MANTLE, MICKEY (1931-1995), American baseball player 10 216-218

MANUEL I (1469-1521), king of Portugal 1495-1521 10 219-220

MANUEL I COMNENUS (c. 1123-1180), Byzantine emperor 1143-1180 10 218-219

MANUEL II PALAIOLOGOS (1350-1425), Byzantine emperor 35 256-258

MANUELITO (1818-1894), Navajo tribal leader 10 220-222

Manufacturers
    see Business and industrial leaders

MANZONI, ALESSANDRO (1785-1873), Italian novelist and playwright 10 222-224

MANZÙ, GIACOMO (1908-1991), Italian sculptor 10 224-225

MAO ZEDONG (1893-1976), Chinese statesman 10 225-227

MAPPLETHORPE, ROBERT (1946-1989), controversial American photographer 10 227-228

MARADONA, DIEGO (born 1961), Argentine soccer player 20 239-241

MARAGHI, AL-MUSTAFĀ (1881-1945), Egyptian jurist and educator 10 228-229

Marah
    see Jackson, Helen Hunt

MARAT, JEAN PAUL (1743-1793), French journalist and political leader 10 230-231

MARBLE, ALICE (1913-1990), American tennis player 21 271-273

Marbury, Anne
    see Hutchinson, Anne Marbury

MARC, FRANZ (1880-1916), German painter 10 231

MARCEAU, MARCEL (1923-2007), world's greatest practitioner of pantomine 10 231-233

MARCEL, GABRIEL (1889-1973), French philosopher 10 233-234

MARCHAND, JEAN-BAPTISTE (1863-1934), French explorer and soldier 10 234-237

MARCHIONNE, SERGIO (born 1952), Italian-Canadian auto executive 32 232-234